CH — LARRY ROMANOFF — 加拿大被污染的血液——更新 — 2022年3月31日


    Canada’s Tainted Blood — Update



    By Larry Romanoff, March 31, 2022



     Guilt and anger surface as infected blood inquiry hears evidence | Contaminated blood scandal | The Guardian




    This essay is part of my series on Big Pharma titled “A Litany of Pharma Crimes” (1) This is of special importance because it relates to our current COVID-19 catastrophe and all these separate segments form dots that need to be connected to fully appreciate and understand what is happening to our world today. In addition to my articles on COVID-19 specifically, these other segments illuminate the criminality that pervades the entire pharma industry but which includes collusion at the highest levels of Western governments and UN agencies like the WHO and UNICEF, Foundations like the Rockefeller Institute and individuals like Bill Gates.


    The extent of what can only be termed a homicidal criminality is almost impossible to believe at first reading. On reading these stories, we have an instinctive tendency to tell ourselves that “This cannot possibly be true. They would never do that.” It is painful and upsetting to be finally forced to the conclusion that “Yes, they bloody well would do that.” There are several extremely shocking essays to come, not the least of which will cover the COVID-19 injections (vaccinations) and Pfizer’s extensive criminal history.



    The front page of The Globe and Mail on Nov. 27, 1997.


    In the early 1980s, thousands of Canadians were infected with HIV and at least another 60,000 or more with hepatitis C, from tainted blood products distributed by the Canadian Red Cross who were responsible for the country’s blood donation system. This agency took most of the blame for the public health calamity, but there were many others involved in the scandal, producing a web of disastrous decisions heavily contaminated with a dysfunctional negligence that bordered on – and sometimes crossed the line into – criminality. In the end, facing multiple accusations of criminal negligence, the Red Cross was stripped of its blood collection responsibilities and a new Federal agency established, with billions of dollars being paid in compensation to the victims.  (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

    20世纪80年代初,数千名加拿大人感染了艾滋病毒,另有至少6万人或更多人感染了丙型肝炎,这些人来自负责该国献血系统的加拿大红十字会分发的受污染血液制品。该机构承担了公共卫生灾难的大部分责任,但还有许多其他人卷入了这起丑闻,产生了一系列灾难性的决定,严重沾染了功能失调的疏忽,近乎——有时甚至跨越了——犯罪。最终,面对多项刑事过失指控,红十字会被剥夺了采血职责,并成立了一个新的联邦机构,向受害者支付了数十亿美元的赔偿金。 (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

    The root cause of this enormous disaster was the existence of an unregulated and uncontrolled medical-pharma industry in the US, resulting in the private-enterprise, profit-maximising commercialisation of the business of blood collection and distribution. One result of the American system was the collection of blood from US prisons, the most high-risk of all sources but one with a captive population and a fundamentally criminal environment perfectly suited to the style of the US pharma companies. At the time, Canada imported a great deal of blood from the US, primarily through a US blood broker named Continental Pharma-Cryosan, who sold their products to a Canadian blood fractionator named Connaught Laboratories which was then a Canadian state-owned company. Connaught re-sold its blood and blood products to the Canadian Red Cross for final distribution to hospitals and other medical facilities.

     这场巨大灾难的根本原因是美国存在着一个不受监管、不受控制的医药行业,导致了私营企业的出现,使血液采集和分配业务的利润最大化。美国制度的一个结果是从美国监狱收集血液,这是所有来源中风险最高的,但有一个俘虏人口和一个完全适合美国制药公司风格的基本犯罪环境。当时,加拿大从美国进口了大量血液,主要是通过一家名为Continental Pharma Cryosan的美国血液经纪人,该经纪人将其产品出售给一家名为康诺实验室的加拿大血液分离机,康诺实验室当时是加拿大的一家国有公司。康诺将其血液和血液制品重新出售给加拿大红十字会,以便最终分发给医院和其他医疗机构。

    In the final analysis, it seems Connaught Labs carried most of the responsibility for the tragedy and should have been apportioned most of the blame. In 1971, more than ten years prior to this disaster, the Canadian government had forbidden the practice of collecting blood from prisons because of the high risk of infections, and Connaught was fully aware of this fact, so purchasing blood from US prisons was hardly an acceptable alternative. The shipments of US blood were not specifically identified as originating in US prisons, the shipper merely being identified as ‘ADC’, without specifying that the acronym stood for the ‘Arkansas Department of Corrections’ – the prison system. However, supporting documentation which included reports from the US FDA did clearly identify the source, but the executives at Connaught claimed they didn’t bother to read them. The director of blood fractionation at Connaught, a Dr. Anthony Magnin, testified that collecting blood from prisoners “was not considered inherently a problem”, and that the identifying documents were either not read at all “or they were read and not acted upon”.


    The evidence at the judicial hearings indicated that Connaught’s safeguards and checks were more or less entirely absent for years. Connaught could have initiated site checks on the sources of its blood shipments, and could have performed its own checks on the purity of the shipments, but chose to do neither, relying instead on US FDA reports which were of no value except to identify the source because the FDA performed no checks or oversight worthy of mention, the entire US operation being essentially an unsupervised Wild West. The US Health Service had strongly discouraged the collection of blood from high-risk areas and, though the practice was not made illegal, this blood was no longer sold in the US and was therefore exported. This left Connaught in the position of importing and selling large volumes of blood that had been rejected by US authorities.


    Continental Pharma was informed by the FDA in June 1983 of potential problems with plasma it had supplied to Connaught, but did not initiate a recall and did not inform Connaught until months later. Meanwhile, an FBI investigation determined that Continental Pharma had committed numerous illegalities and broken many laws, but they appear to not have notified Canada. And for their part, the Canadian RCMP apparently failed to inform the Americans when their investigation revealed that Continental Pharma had been falsely labelling blood as originating with Swedish donors when it had actually been extracted from Russian cadavers.

     1983年6月,美国食品和药物管理局(FDA)告知大陆制药(Continental Pharma),其向康诺供应的血浆存在潜在问题,但并未发起召回,直到数月后才通知康诺。与此同时,联邦调查局的一项调查确定,大陆制药公司犯下了许多违法行为,违反了许多法律,但他们似乎没有通知加拿大。加拿大皇家骑警显然没有通知美国人,因为他们的调查显示,大陆制药公司在从俄罗斯尸体中提取血液时,一直错误地将血液标记为来自瑞典捐献者。

    But the rot went still deeper, and it wasn’t only Continental Pharma who crossed the line from negligence to criminality. In 1983, a senior Connaught executive wrote a letter to assure the Canadian Red Cross that none of its blood plasma sources were located “in population centers in the US shown to bear high risk for AIDS”, and further that Connaught were ”keenly aware of the potential risk of AIDS for the hemophiliac”. These statements were clearly untrue since a month earlier the company had received documents proving it had been purchasing blood and plasma collected from US prisons, and had purchased directly from the prisons as well. Not only that, Connaught was at the same time purchasing blood supplies directly from a blood bank in San Francisco that was located in the center of Skid Row and was on the FDA’s warning list as one of the world’s highest-risk areas for HIV. For Connaught to have given those assurances to the Red Cross in light of the true facts, was criminally irresponsible at best.


    While HIV tests were not initially considered accurate, there were effective tests that would have caught most of the cases of Hepatitis C. Moreover, after evidence was mounting that HIV and Hepatitis were being transmitted through contaminated blood products, Connaught made no effort to locate or inform those who might have been infected. In addition, a heat treatment had been developed for the blood products that would have killed the resident infections, but Connaught neglected to take this step and yet continued to sell its stock of potentially contaminated products. When developed countries began turning en masse to the new heat-treated products, Connaught began looking to developing nations as likely markets for its contaminated products. During the enquiry, confidential memos surfaced from the company that suggested Iran and Spain were “possible markets”, and suggested they “could be in a position to sell six million units to France”. They then apparently had second thoughts and decided their contaminated “current product should not be offered for sale to developed countries”.


    An even greater tragedy continued because Bayer Pharma and Cutter Biological continued to flog this diseased product around the world for several years. They sent millions of packs infected plasma to Hong Kong and caused an enormous epidemic there, infecting tens of thousands of innocent victims with no accurate report of deaths. And they did the same throughout Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Nobody knows how many lives were ruined nor how many people died. I will publish two more reports on Bayer and Cutter to expose the extent of the homicidal criminality involved in this.

     更大的悲剧还在继续,因为拜耳制药(Bayer Pharma)和卡特生物(Cutter Biological)连续几年在世界各地鞭打这种患病产品。他们向香港运送了数百万袋感染的血浆,并在那里造成了巨大的流行病,感染了成千上万无辜的受害者,没有准确的死亡报告。他们在亚洲、非洲和拉丁美洲也采取了同样的行动。没有人知道有多少生命被毁,也没有人知道有多少人死亡。我将再发表两篇关于拜耳和卡特的报道,揭露其中涉及的杀人犯罪程度。

    The blood scandal exploded first in Canada, from a lawsuit filed in the US by a prisoner who claimed to have been infected with Hepatitis C from transfusions obtained through the prison system. It was then that the FDA issued new guidelines and informed Connaught’s broker Continental Pharma of the virtual certainty of contamination. After a delay of months, the firm notified Connaught who then were compelled to inform the Canadian Red Cross, who then cancelled their contract with Connaught. But none of the parties initiated a recall of the contaminated blood, apparently preferring to ‘ride out the storm’ and slowly move to safer products. The cancellation of the Red Cross contract of course was a major crisis for Connaught since this was its major source of revenue but, with the assistance of pressure from the government, the contract was renewed.


    The Canadian Red Cross came under substantial and even violent criticism, primarily for its cowardice in failing to notify the public of its contaminated blood, for continuing to distribute tainted blood products in silence, and for denying the truth when it became public. All involved parties devoted their energy to circling the wagons and trying to contain the scandal instead of protecting and informing the public, worrying more about personal liability and recriminations than the huge numbers of infected and dying people. There was some confusion (on which all concerned parties attempted to place the blame) in that the Canadian government required only that blood purchased from US sources originate from locations approved by the FDA. It was not illegal to collect prison blood in the US, and though this product was no longer being sold domestically it still retained its FDA approval on the (implicit) understanding it would be exported. It therefore complied with Canada’s stipulations in law but clearly not in intent.


    Prime Minister Paul Martin shares a moment with Liberal Party President Michael Eizenga, after losing the election January 24 , 2006 in Montreal, Quebec.

    总理保罗·马丁与自由党主席迈克尔·艾森加分享了这一时刻, 在2006年1月24日魁北克省蒙特利尔选举失败后。

    Connaught Labs was a kind of treasure of Canada’s government at the time, having been established in an effort to create and nurture sophisticated elements of the nation’s health-care industry. It was a high-profile company that had developed a history of problems, all of which tended to be ignored and which quietly multiplied. Paul Martin, who would later become Canada’s Prime Minister, was on the board of directors of Connaught’s holding company which shared directors, meaning the lengthy discussions of the company’s blood trade could not have escaped attention, and many placed much of the overall blame on Mr. Martin, especially considering his reluctance to examine the matter.


    Justice Horace Krever - Unspeakable | TVmaze

    Justice Horace Krever

    Commissioner of the Inquiry into the Blood System in Canada from 1993–97.




    In Canada, judicial hearings and enquiries generally collect and state facts without being permitted to assign blame or liability, but this case was different and the judge heading the enquiry, a Mr. Justice Krever, fully intended to assign not only blame but criminal liability in his final report. With this knowledge, Mr. Martin and other members of the Cabinet of Canada’s government pursued Justice Krever all the way to Canada’s Supreme Court in a failed attempt to prevent him from doing so. There was substantial criticism of Mr. Martin and Connaught’s holding company for refusal to cooperate with the judicial enquiry, effectively stonewalling all efforts to obtain information, claiming a thorough search of government files found no records of any kind dealing with the matter.


    As a result of the judicial enquiry, Canada’s RCMP launched a five-year investigation into the matter and eventually laid 32 criminal charges against several doctors, various government bureaucrats, the head of the Red Cross blood program and a Vice-President of the US firm Armour Pharmaceutical. Connaught Labs was charged with criminal offenses as was the Red Cross itself, but the Red Cross was fined only $5,000 for distributing a contaminated drug and the criminal charges were dropped. After a trial that lasted 18 months, the judge ruled that there was “no crime” in either the actions of the doctors, Connaught Labs, the Red Cross, or the US firm, a decision that still today angers Canadians, amid accusations of a massive government cover-up and judicial interference. Most observers considered the verdict an unforgiveable miscarriage of justice. Justice Mary Lou Benotto delivered her verdict by stating:

     作为司法调查的结果,加拿大皇家骑警对此事展开了为期五年的调查,最终对几名医生、多名政府官员、红十字会血液项目负责人和美国Armour Pharmaceutical公司的一名副总裁提出了32项刑事指控。康诺特实验室和红十字会本身都被指控犯有刑事罪,但红十字会仅因分发受污染的药物而被罚款5000美元,刑事指控被撤销。在长达18个月的审判后,法官裁定医生、康诺实验室、红十字会或美国公司的行为“没有犯罪”,这一决定至今仍令加拿大人感到愤怒,因为有人指责政府进行大规模掩盖和司法干预。大多数观察家认为这一判决是不可原谅的误判。法官玛丽·卢·贝诺托在宣判时说:

    “There was no conduct that showed wanton and reckless disregard. There was no marked departure from the standard of a reasonable person. On the contrary, the conduct examined in detail for over one and a half years confirms reasonable, responsible and professional actions and responses during a difficult time.”


     Outrage over blood scandal verdict | CTV News

    Noella Baker holds back her emotions after the verdict in the tainted blood case

    was handed down in Toronto on Oct. 1, 2007. (CP / Adrian Wyld)

    诺埃拉·贝克(Noella Baker)在染血案判决后抑制了自己的情绪


    Both Prime Minister Martin and Connaught Labs escaped criminal liability, the Canadian Red Cross was stripped of its blood collection duties and was essentially bankrupted by penalties and civil lawsuits. The Canadian government was forced to settle a class action lawsuit for well over one billion dollars, but the end result was that nobody paid except the people. The Red Cross and Connaught were sued in civil actions paid by shareholders, and the government’s billion-dollar settlement came from the taxpayers. The involved individuals avoided all criminal and financial liability for the tens of thousands of totally preventable infections and deaths from AIDS and Hepatitis.



    Mr. Romanoff’s writing has been translated into 32 languages and his articles posted on more than 150 foreign-language news and politics websites in more than 30 countries, as well as more than 100 English language platforms. Larry Romanoff is a retired management consultant and businessman. He has held senior executive positions in international consulting firms, and owned an international import-export business. He has been a visiting professor at Shanghai’s Fudan University, presenting case studies in international affairs to senior EMBA classes. Mr. Romanoff lives in Shanghai and is currently writing a series of ten books generally related to China and the West. He is one of the contributing authors to Cynthia McKinney’s new anthology ‘When China Sneezes’. (Chapt. 2 — Dealing with Demons).


    His full archive can be seen at

    他的完整档案可在 and






    A Litany of Pharma Crimes



    A Look Back At Canada’s Tainted Blood Scandal



    Canada’s tainted blood scandal: A timeline



    Book Review: Bad Blood: Tainted Blood Scandal; This article was originally published in Maclean’s Magazine on June 26, 1995



    Victims of Canada’s tainted blood scandal to share $207M compensation fund surplus. The excess money is part of a $1-billion trust created to settle a class action launched in 1998 against the Canadian Red Cross, which then administered blood banks




    Bad Blood: The Tragedy Of The Canadian Tainted Blood Scandal Paperback – April 18 2002



    Copyright © Larry RomanoffBlue Moon of Shanghai, Moon of Shanghai, 2022

    版权所有(拉里·罗曼诺夫上海的蓝月亮, 上海之月, 2022