CH — LARRY ROMANOFF — 一连串的制药犯罪——第二部分——金钱交易

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    A Litany of Pharma Crimes – Part 2 – A Money Business

    一连串的制药犯罪——第二部分——金钱交易

     

    By Larry RomanoffMarch 10, 2022

    拉里·罗曼诺夫2022310

    译者:珍珠 

    Part 1

    第一部分

    $100 Australian dollar notes layered over each other.

    ENGLISH   CHINESE

     

    American industry abandoned early on its pretense of making high-quality products, as a natural result of the new mantra of profit maximisation. When American capitalists redefined “long-term” as three months, making a product to last a lifetime became a kind of self-inflicted injury, in that if they manufactured a set of kitchen pots that would last for generations, that purchaser was lost forever as a customer. The natural corollary was that a poor-quality item would require repeated disposal and repurchase, thereby guaranteeing repeat customers and higher profits indefinitely, whereupon our greed-driven captains of industry quickly embarked on a plan to continually degrade product quality and ensure the necessity of continued replacement. By the 1980s, nearly all American multi-nationals and large corporations had joined the race to the bottom.

     美国工业很早就放弃了制造高质量产品的借口,这是利润最大化新口号的自然结果。当美国资本家将“长期”重新定义为三个月时,制造一种可以使用一辈子的产品就成了一种自残行为,因为如果他们制造一套可以使用几代人的厨房锅,那么购买者就永远失去了顾客的身份。自然而然的推论是,质量差的产品需要反复处置和回购,从而保证了回头客和无限期的更高利润,于是我们贪婪的行业领袖迅速开始了一项计划,以不断降低产品质量,并确保继续更换的必要性。到了20世纪80年代,几乎所有的美国跨国公司和大公司都加入了到底层的竞争。

    This important lesson in the economics of greed wasn’t lost on the pharma companies, who realised just as quickly that producing a cure for a disease would have the same result as that from high-quality pots and pans, which is no repeat customers and the death by suicide of their own revenue stream. And that means the major pharma companies are essentially producing what I call ‘pain-killer’ medications, drugs which fail to address the root cause of an illness but which provide temporary relief by masking the symptoms, thereby creating countless millions of drug-dependent repeat customers. More than a few pharmacists have confirmed documented reports that pharma companies mostly invest research dollars into a search for these “control medications”, rather than search for actual cures for an illness. The emphasis is on managing the symptoms while maintaining the disease, very effectively utilising physicians and hospitals as front-line soldiers to convert every patient into a long-term cash stream. (1)

     制药公司并没有忘记贪婪经济学中的这一重要教训,他们很快意识到,生产一种治疗疾病的方法,将产生与高质量的锅碗瓢盆相同的结果,而高质量的锅碗瓢盆并不是回头客,而是他们自己的收入流因自杀而死亡。这意味着大型制药公司基本上在生产我所说的“止痛药”,这些药物不能解决疾病的根本原因,但通过掩盖症状提供暂时缓解,从而创造了无数药物依赖的回头客。不止几位药剂师证实了有文献记载的报告,即制药公司大多将研究资金投资于寻找这些“对照药物”,而不是寻找疾病的实际治疗方法。重点是在控制症状的同时维持疾病,非常有效地利用医生和医院作为前线士兵,将每位患者转化为长期现金流。(1)

    Big pharma is in the disease business, not the cure business. A medical cure is a dead-end road that no pharma company would willingly travel. The only exceptions to this have been a few instances where epidemic-scale diseases were threatening to kill unacceptably-large numbers of the white population, as with the search for a polio vaccine. Then, the industry finds a cure. Professor John Ashton, the president of the UK Faculty of Public Health, accused the Western pharmaceutical industry of ‘moral bankruptcy’ for refusing to research an Ebola vaccine “because the virus only affects Africans”. (2) (3) He wrote that the same attitude existed for decades with the scourge of AIDS because the virus was infecting and killing primarily blacks.

     大型制药公司从事的是疾病业务,而不是治疗业务。医疗治疗是一条没有制药公司愿意走的死胡同。唯一的例外是,少数情况下,大规模流行病有可能导致大量白人死亡,令人无法接受,就像寻找脊髓灰质炎疫苗一样。然后,该行业找到了解决办法。英国公共卫生学院院长约翰·阿什顿教授指责西方制药行业“道德破产”,因为该行业拒绝研究埃博拉疫苗,“因为该病毒只影响非洲人”。(2) (3)他写道,几十年来,人们对艾滋病的祸害也持同样的态度,因为这种病毒主要感染和杀害黑人。

    Then we had Dr. Kathy Spreen at Ranbaxy being silenced on her complaints about substandard AIDS medication in Africa on the grounds that “Who cares? It’s just blacks dying”. (4) More on this later. Similarly, the US government for decades ignored the disease of Pellagra which was known to be caused by a simple Niacin vitamin deficiency, watching literally millions of people die needlessly, but failing to act because the deaths occurred mostly in the poverty-stricken black population. In fact, during those decades, both the authorities and the pharma companies ridiculed those deaths, referring to Pellagra as “the slave disease”. Sociopathology at its finest.

     然后我们让兰巴西的凯西·斯普林医生对非洲艾滋病药物质量不合格的投诉保持沉默,理由是“谁在乎?这只是黑人在死亡”。(4)稍后再详细介绍。类似地,几十年来,美国政府忽视了糙皮病,这种疾病被认为是由简单的烟酸维生素缺乏引起的,眼看着数以百万计的人毫无必要地死亡,但却没有采取行动,因为死亡主要发生在贫困的黑人人口中。事实上,在那几十年里,当局和制药公司都嘲笑这些死亡,称糙皮病为“奴隶病”。最好的社会病理学。

    I have acquaintances with some knowledge of the pharmaceutical industry who confide suspicions that discovered cures have actually been suppressed in favor of the continued production of control medications, and I have seen some documentation that provides at least circumstantial evidence to support these claims. Naturally, industry apologists are quick to dismiss these accusations as paranoid fantasies and ‘conspiracy theories’, but their denials appear a bit hollow and self-serving. I have seen no indisputable proof the pharma companies have shelved cures, but I harbor no doubts whatever they would do so if opportunities arose.

     我认识一些制药行业的人,他们怀疑发现的治疗方法实际上已被压制,以支持继续生产对照药物,我还看到了一些文件,这些文件至少提供了支持这些说法的间接证据。当然,行业辩护人士会很快将这些指控斥为偏执幻想和“阴谋论”,但他们的否认似乎有点空洞和自私。我没有看到制药公司搁置治疗的无可争辩的证据,但我毫不怀疑,如果出现机会,他们会怎么做。

    The truth is that pharmaceutical companies have no incentive to “write themselves out of the equation.” Forbes of course dismisses and derides this as yet another ‘conspiracy theory’, hoping to throw the faithful off the scent and protect the pharma industry from yet another scandal. (5)

     事实是,制药公司没有“把自己从等式中写出来”的动机《福布斯》当然驳斥并嘲笑这是又一个“阴谋论”,希望能让忠实的人们摆脱气味,保护制药行业免受另一场丑闻的影响。(5)

    To counter some of the industry defenses, we need only think. There is no shortage of examples of discoveries and patents that have been shelved because they threatened someone’s revenue stream, one clear example being General Motors buying and sequestering the worldwide patents for NiMH auto battery technology, an example that industry and the media still desperately want everyone to forget. (6) In spite of all the faux moralistic outrage at such accusations, the pharma companies (and almost every large multinational) are today profit-driven to an insane degree.

     为了对抗某些行业的防御,我们只需要思考一下。由于威胁到某人的收入来源而被搁置的发现和专利不乏实例,其中一个明显的例子是通用汽车购买并扣押了NiMH车电池技术的全球专利,业界和媒体仍然迫切希望大家忘记这个例子。(6)尽管这些指控引发了所有虚假的道德愤怒,但制药公司(以及几乎所有大型跨国公司)如今的利润驱动已经到了疯狂的程度。

    When GM will refuse an auto recall for a $0.90 ignition switch (7) or Ford an $11.00 fix for a flaming gas tank (8) because their cost-benefit analyses proved the cost of resulting deaths to be less than that of a repair, there is little point in debating the imaginary ethical standards of big business. Interestingly, industry writers today almost universally classify examples like these as “engineering failures” rather than the “ethical failures” they really were. (9)

     当通用汽车拒绝召回价值0.90美元的点火开关时(7)或者福特11美元修理一个燃烧的油箱(8)因为他们的成本效益分析证明,造成死亡的成本低于修复的成本,所以对大企业的想象道德标准进行辩论几乎没有意义。有趣的是,如今的行业作家几乎普遍将此类案例归类为“工程失败”,而不是它们真正的“道德失败”。(9)

    And the claims about disease cures being potentially worth untold billions of dollars to a company and eternal fame and glory for the researcher, are Disneyland nonsense. When a country’s national health service can be milked for $150,000 per patient per year for cancer treatments or AIDS medications that cost pennies to produce, fame and glory are a weak incentive to research a disease cure that would serve only to shred the income statement. No pharma company would be so stupid as to collapse its own multi-billion-dollar revenue stream for the sake of either humanity or glory.

     关于疾病治疗对一家公司来说可能价值数亿美元,对研究人员来说是永恒的名声和荣耀的说法,都是迪士尼乐园的胡说八道。当一个国家的国民医疗服务每年可以为每位患者收取15万美元的癌症治疗或艾滋病药物费用,而这些费用只需几分钱就能生产出来时,名声和荣誉对研究一种疾病治疗方法的激励是很弱的,而这种治疗方法只会破坏利润表。没有哪家制药公司会愚蠢到为了人类或荣耀而毁掉自己数十亿美元的收入来源。

    There is another unpleasant aspect to this issue, being that in their frenzied pursuit of revenue streams the pharma companies have largely abandoned not only the search for cures, but any path that leads to low profit. One result is that simple medications, often arising from areas like Chinese traditional medicine, may not be patentable. This, combined with a low cost to synthesise and with a corresponding low selling price, will prevent any pursuit in this area.

     这个问题还有另一个令人不快的方面,那就是制药公司在疯狂追求收入流的过程中,基本上不仅放弃了寻找治疗方法,而且放弃了任何导致低利润的途径。一个结果是,通常来自中国传统医学等领域的简单药物可能无法获得专利。这一点,再加上合成的低成本和相应的低售价,将阻止在这一领域的任何追求。

    The pharma companies spend huge sums of money to convince physicians and the public that only patentable synthetic drugs qualify as “real medicine”, and heavily discourage natural or generic sources. They also invest huge time and money to cannibalise their own medications, constantly imagining “new and improved” versions that are seldom better, often worse, almost always with increasingly more serious side effects, but that will sell at far higher prices. Drugs like Pfizer’s Celebrex and Bextra, promoted as massive innovations, were nothing of the sort, specialists claiming they were “no better than the old tried-and-true Ibuprofen, but sold for fifteen times as much”.

     制药公司花费巨资说服医生和公众,只有可申请专利的合成药物才有资格成为“真正的药物”,并大力阻止天然或非专利来源。他们还投入大量时间和金钱来蚕食自己的药物,不断想象“新的和改进的”版本,这些版本很少更好,往往更糟,几乎总是伴随着越来越严重的副作用,但价格会高得多。辉瑞公司的西乐葆(Celebrex)和贝思特(Bextra)等药物被宣传为大规模创新,但它们完全不是这类药物,专家称它们“并不比久经考验的真正布洛芬好,但售价是布洛芬的15倍”。

    It is so bad that pharma companies specialise in “inventing diseases”. ”Pharmaceutical companies regularly pathologize everyday experiences, convince doctors that they are serious problems, tell a hypochondriacal public it needs help and offers the cure: a new drug.” (10)

     制药公司专门从事“发明疾病”,这太糟糕了制药公司定期对日常经历进行病理学分析,让医生相信这些都是严重问题,告诉疑病患者需要帮助,并提供治疗方法:一种新药。”(10)

    A further issue is that these firms, again in their single-minded pursuit of profit, have become psychological marketers in the best tradition of Bernays and the advertising industry. One clear result is their great interest in developing what are called “lifestyle drugs”, which are designer drugs for rich Americans for conditions like hair loss and sex drive maintenance, areas in which large segments of the public can be powerfully affected by clever advertising. The pharma companies being big business rather than humanitarian concerns, learned quickly there are far greater profits in the limp phalluses of rich Americans than in a malaria cure among the Malaysian poor.

     另一个问题是,这些公司再次一心一意地追求利润,已经成为伯奈斯和广告业最佳传统中的心理营销者。一个明显的结果是,他们对开发所谓的“生活方式药物”非常感兴趣,这是一种专为美国富人设计的药物,用于治疗脱发和性欲维持等疾病,在这些领域,大量公众可能会受到巧妙广告的有力影响。制药公司是大企业,而不是人道主义问题,他们很快就认识到,美国富人软弱无力的阴茎比马来西亚穷人的疟疾治疗带来的利润要大得多。

    Also of great concern is what we can call ‘pre-emptive medicine’, the increasingly long list of new medications that are not proposed as cures for medical conditions but rather as preventive measures to forestall such conditions. The theory sounds good, but the experience gained from practice is truly a cautionary tale. Merck’s Vioxx was promoted as a way to prevent heart attacks in the over-65 population but instead proved to cause those same heart attacks, killing much of the population in the process. Ron Unz wrote an excellent article on this that should be considered required reading for every household:

    同样令人担忧的是我们可以称之为“先发制人的药物”,这是一份越来越长的新药清单,这些新药不是用来治疗疾病的,而是用来预防疾病的预防措施。这个理论听起来不错,但从实践中获得的经验确实是一个警示故事。默克公司的万络被宣传为一种预防65岁以上人群心脏病发作的方法,但事实证明,万络会导致同样的心脏病发作,在这一过程中导致许多人死亡。Ron Unz写了一篇关于这方面的优秀文章,应该被视为每个家庭的必读读物:

    https://www.unz.com/runz/chinese-melamine-and-american-vioxx-a-comparison/

    Statins today are a huge fad, excessively promoted by the pharma companies as an essentially harmless wonder drug almost mandatory to protect the world of retired people. These drugs are enormously profitable and an excellent example of pre-emptive medicine combined with lifestyle marketing, but let’s not forget too quickly that Merck’s Vioxx was marketed in essentially the same way, as a ‘preventive’ medication which in the end it most emphatically was not.

     他汀类药物是一个巨大的时尚,制药公司过度提倡它是一种基本上无害的特效药,几乎是强制性的保护退休人员的世界。这些药物利润丰厚,是先发制人药物与生活方式营销相结合的绝佳范例,但我们不要太快忘记,默克公司的万络基本上是以同样的方式进行营销的,作为一种“预防性”药物,但最终它显然不是。

    Statins are now proving to be as dangerous as Vioxx, with the pharma companies desperately trying to minimise the truly devastating side effects inherent in this range of drugs, carrying a substantial risk of severely debilitating injuries to a not inconsiderable percentage of users. They have a proven ability to destroy musculature and render previously healthy patients into almost corpses. There is no shortage of documented evidence that patients who have been prescribed statins have suffered permanent and debilitating loss of their muscle capacity, previously healthy individuals reduced to the point where they are no longer able to walk more than perhaps 50 meters without suffering uncontrollable muscle exhaustion and pain.

     他汀类药物现在被证明和万络一样危险,制药公司拼命地试图将这一系列药物固有的真正毁灭性副作用降到最低,给相当大比例的使用者带来严重损伤的巨大风险。他们有一种被证明的破坏肌肉组织的能力,并使以前健康的患者几乎变成尸体。不乏文献证据表明,服用他汀类药物的患者遭受了肌肉能力的永久性和衰弱性丧失,之前健康的个体已经退化到无法再行走50米以上,而不会出现无法控制的肌肉疲劳和疼痛。

    Yet these medications have all been approved by the ‘gold standard’ FDA and are being heavily promoted by all pharma companies as a “necessity” for all those over age 60. The FDA once more has abandoned its prime responsibility to the public, presumably telling itself that the public can read the package warnings, competently evaluate the risks, and make an informed conscious choice. Of course, nothing could be farther from the truth.

     然而,这些药物都已获得美国食品和药物管理局(FDA)的“金标准”批准,并被所有制药公司大力宣传为60岁以上人群的“必需品”。FDA再次放弃了对公众的主要责任,大概是告诉自己,公众可以阅读包装警告,胜任地评估风险,并做出明智的选择。当然,没有什么比这更离谱了。

    In June of 2015 the Washington Post was aflutter with excitement about a “new and improved” class of medication that might eliminate the risk of heart attacks in America forever – statins. (11) Of course, statins have been around for some time, long enough that the patents will soon expire and thus generating another frantic round of absolutely necessary new and improved at ten times the price. Naturally, fluttering media support is helpful in such cases. In (maybe questionable) clinical trials, these new statins appear magical, apparently producing “striking results” on cholesterol but oddly no firm opinion on whether that will actually reduce cardiac events. Nevertheless, we are assured the FDA recognises the huge unmet need for this new drug.

     2015年6月,《华盛顿邮报》对一种“新的、改进的”药物——他汀类药物兴奋不已,这种药物可能永远消除美国心脏病发作的风险。(11)当然,他汀类药物已经存在了一段时间,时间足够长,专利很快就会到期,从而以十倍的价格产生了另一轮绝对必要的新的和改进的药物。当然,在这种情况下,飘忽不定的媒体支持是有帮助的。在(可能有疑问的)临床试验中,这些新的他汀类药物看起来很神奇,似乎对胆固醇产生了“惊人的效果”,但奇怪的是,对于这是否真的会减少心脏事件,没有明确的意见。尽管如此,我们确信FDA承认这种新药的巨大需求尚未得到满足。

    And what is driving this huge unmet need? The profits, primarily, since this new and improved breed will cost each patient about $10,000 per year. If we multiply that by the almost 50 million US residents over age 65 – the primary victims of this new medical miracle – we get the nice round number of $500 billion dollars. What else is there to say, except to note that most of these new miracle drugs in the past 30 years have had a bad habit of causing more heart attacks than they prevented. Merck’s Zocor was one of these. If you recall, the FDA did a field trial and discovered that this miracle statin not only failed to prevent cardiac arrests but in fact doubled their incidence. Vioxx was the same. But in all the excitement everybody seems to have forgotten.

     是什么推动了这个巨大的未满足需求?利润主要是因为这种新品种和改良品种每年将花费每位患者约1万美元。如果我们将这一数字乘以65岁以上的近5000万美国居民——这一新医疗奇迹的主要受害者——我们可以得到5000亿美元的整数。除此之外,还有什么要说的,除了注意到在过去30年中,这些新的神奇药物中的大多数都有一个坏习惯,即导致的心脏病发作比它们预防的要多。默克的Zocor就是其中之一。如果你还记得的话,FDA进行了一次现场试验,发现这种神奇的他汀类药物不仅未能预防心脏骤停,而且事实上使其发病率增加了一倍。万络也是一样。但在所有的兴奋中,每个人似乎都忘记了。

    And it wasn’t only Zocor and Vioxx. As of early 2003, Bayer had paid well over $1 billion to settle thousands of lawsuits worldwide for deaths and severe muscle deterioration resulting from the use of the company’s Baycol statin medication. Approved by the FDA in 1997 without proper testing or oversight, Baycol had to be withdrawn from the market in 2001 due to its dangerous effects. Pfizer’s statin, Lipitor, was also facing a huge wave of lawsuits from injuries due to serious side effects in spite of being the best-selling prescription drug of all time, with total global sales of more than $130 billion. With more than 50 million users, Pfizer may have no shortage of lawsuits. Statins are so profitable and the FDA’s approval process so reckless that pharma companies continue to produce and sell new versions even more deadly.

     不仅仅是佐科和万络。截至2003年初,拜耳支付了远远超过10亿美元,以解决全球数千起因使用拜可他汀类药物而导致死亡和严重肌肉恶化的诉讼。1997年,美国食品和药物管理局(FDA)在没有适当检测或监督的情况下批准了Baycol,但由于其危险性,Baycol于2001年不得不退出市场。辉瑞的他汀类药物立普妥(Lipitor)尽管是有史以来最畅销的处方药,全球总销售额超过1300亿美元,但也因严重副作用受伤而面临一波巨大的诉讼。辉瑞拥有超过5000万用户,可能不缺诉讼。他汀类药物是如此有利可图,FDA的批准程序如此鲁莽,以至于制药公司继续生产和销售更致命的新药。

    Vitamin Pills

    维生素片

    Health Supplements, or simple vitamins, are another category that is thriving from the massive promotional campaign carried on worldwide, again a preventive medicine taken not because its needed, but to prevent its need. I believe this is one of the greatest medical hoaxes perpetrated thus far, since excess vitamins are simply excreted by the body and are a waste of money. Any normal diet has always provided, and provides today, the necessary vitamin intake for good health. The few individuals suffering from vitamin deficiencies should be under the care of a physician rather than spending inordinate amounts of money on what are almost entirely useless pills.

     健康补充剂,或简单维生素,是另一个在全世界范围内开展的大规模宣传活动中蓬勃发展的类别,也是一种预防性药物,不是因为需要,而是为了防止需要。我认为这是迄今为止最大的医疗骗局之一,因为过量的维生素只是由身体排出,是浪费金钱。任何一种正常的饮食都能为身体健康提供必要的维生素摄入,今天也是如此。为数不多的维生素缺乏症患者应该接受内科医师的治疗,而不是在几乎完全无用的药片上花费过多的钱。

    The industry was created in the US by American pharma companies and advertising agencies, with the benefit of large bribes to the medical profession, to the extent that Americans now spend nearly $8 billion per year on these pills to no purpose. There is no question the problems are widespread, the fad having been created by clever marketing that targets sincere interest in health, then hijacked by those who value money more than ethics – precisely the same situation existing in the pharma market generally.

     该行业是由美国制药公司和广告公司在美国创立的,得益于对医疗行业的巨额贿赂,以至于美国人现在每年在这些药片上花费近80亿美元。毫无疑问,这些问题是普遍存在的,这种风潮是由针对健康的真诚兴趣的聪明营销创造的,然后被那些更看重金钱而非道德的人所劫持——这与制药市场中普遍存在的情况完全相同。

    These firms are not marketing vitamins because the public needs them but simply because they are hugely profitable, in many cases costing only pennies to manufacture but selling for many tens of dollars per bottle. No person anywhere should purchase any of these items unless their physician detects a deficiency that cannot be easily remedied by other means. This vitamin industry has become so loaded with infatuation and misinformation that even a soap company like Amway is making billions of dollars selling re-manufactured pills they probably don’t even understand.

     这些公司销售维生素并不是因为公众需要,而是因为它们利润丰厚,在许多情况下,生产成本只有几美分,但每瓶售价高达数十美元。任何地方的任何人都不应购买这些物品,除非他们的医生检测到无法通过其他方式轻松修复的缺陷。这个维生素行业充满了迷恋和错误信息,甚至像安利这样的肥皂公司也在通过销售他们可能根本不懂的重新制造的药片赚取数十亿美元。

    Even worse, most of the ‘health supplements’ or vitamins offered for sale are not what they appear to be, a great many of even the best brands being nothing more than a concoction of what the industry calls “fillers” – ground-up rice, wheat or soybeans with absolutely no trace of Vitamin A or Alpha-Omega or any other high-sounding health additive. Anahad O’Connor wrote a perfect article in the New York Times in November of 2013, detailing the widespread fraud existing in the health supplement market and noting that DNA tests show that many pills labeled as healing herbs are nothing more than powdered rice and weeds. (12)

     更糟糕的是,大多数出售的“健康补充剂”或维生素都不是表面上看起来的样子,很多甚至是最好的品牌也不过是行业称之为“填料”的混合物——碾碎的大米,小麦或大豆,绝对不含维生素A或α-ω或任何其他冠冕堂皇的健康添加剂。2013年11月,阿纳哈德·奥康纳(Anahad O’Connor)在《纽约时报》(New York Times)上发表了一篇完美的文章,详细描述了健康补充剂市场上普遍存在的欺诈行为,并指出DNA测试显示,许多被贴上治疗草药标签的药丸只不过是米粉和杂草。(12)

    Canadian researchers tested 44 bottles of the more popular supplements sold by many different companies and discovered that most were either heavily diluted with, or entirely replaced by, cheap fillers like soybean, wheat and rice. The findings of this study were published in the journal BMC Medicine, (13) and concur with other studies conducted elsewhere that indicate the health supplement industry is even more corrupt than its pharmaceutical big brother.

     加拿大研究人员对许多不同公司销售的44瓶较受欢迎的补充剂进行了测试,发现大多数补充剂要么被大豆、小麦和大米等廉价填料严重稀释,要么被完全替代。这项研究的结果发表在《BMC医学》杂志上(13)并同意其他地方进行的其他研究,这些研究表明,保健品行业甚至比其制药大哥更腐败。

    Pharma Pricing Strategies

    药定价策略

    In June of 2013, the London Telegraph produced an astonishingly scandalous article that served to confirm the things we’ve always believed about drug prices, in this case the newspaper recording conversations with drug company executives boasting like schoolboys about selling prescription drugs for many hundreds of dollars when they cost only pennies to produce. (14) Several drug companies were willing and even eager to offer discounts of 70% or more to any pharmacist or hospital willing to prescribe their medications, with the understanding these would be billed at full prices to the Health Service and to the patients.

     2013年6月,《伦敦电讯报》发表了一篇令人震惊的丑闻文章,证实了我们一直相信的药品价格,在本例中,该报记录了与制药公司高管的对话,他们像小学生一样吹嘘说,生产处方药只需几分钱,就可以卖几百美元。(14)有几家制药公司愿意甚至急切地向任何愿意给他们开药的药剂师或医院提供70%或更高的折扣,因为他们知道这些药物将以全额向医疗服务和患者收费。

    The Telegraph used undercover reporters posing as investors planning to open a large chain of retail pharmacies, and recorded their meetings with pharma executives, producing extensive proof of the collusion to manipulate drug prices to unconscionable levels, systematically overcharging the national health services in many countries by billions of dollars each year.

     《每日电讯报》利用卧底记者假扮投资者,计划开设一家大型连锁零售药店,并记录了他们与制药公司高管的会面,提供了大量证据,证明他们串通操纵药品价格到了不合理的水平,在许多国家,每年有系统地向国家卫生服务机构多收费数亿美元。

    The pharma companies are so overcome by greed that no amount of profit is ever sufficient, with abundant evidence in categories of drugs that are vital to the preservation of life as in many cancer drugs and those used to control AIDS. Many vital cancer medications are priced at $50,000 to $100,000 per year and more, when the production costs are often only a few dollars.

     制药公司被贪婪所困,任何利润都不够,有大量证据表明,与许多癌症药物和用于控制艾滋病的药物一样,这些药物对维持生命至关重要。许多重要的癌症药物的价格为每年5万到10万美元甚至更多,而生产成本通常只有几美元。

    As a typical example, in late 2013, in response to unprecedented public protests, a large group of over 100 consumer organisations in 35 states launched a massive class action against Abbott for anti-trust violations in increasing the price of a critical anti-AIDS drug by over 500%, from $200.00 to over $1,000.00 per package. These public actions included boycotts by physicians, demonstrations at the company’s annual meetings, and a general storm of public condemnation for this profiteering. Abbott stubbornly refused to reconsider its price increase, leading the US Health Service to request that Abbott be stripped of its patent and generic versions of the drug be approved for other manufacturers. Abbott, like all pharma companies, will abandon both morality and humanity if given even a slight monopoly on a life-saving medication.

     一个典型的例子是,2013年末,为了应对前所未有的公众抗议,35个州的100多个消费者组织发起了一场大规模集体诉讼,指控雅培违反反垄断规定,将关键抗艾滋病药物的价格提高了500%以上,从每包200美元提高到1000美元以上。这些公开行动包括医生的抵制、公司年会上的示威,以及公众对这种牟利行为的强烈谴责。雅培顽固地拒绝重新考虑其价格上涨,导致美国卫生署要求取消雅培的专利,并批准该药的仿制药用于其他制造商。和所有制药公司一样,如果在一种拯救生命的药物上获得哪怕是轻微的垄断,雅培将放弃道德和人性。

    Fraudulent Investment

    诈性投资

    Most national governments are eager to see an expansion of domestic R&D, and easily fall prey to research scams perpetrated by the pharma companies who promise to greatly magnify their research expenditures in a nation in exchange for longer periods of patent protection. Too many naïve governments have fallen for this ruse, only to discover that the promised research never materialised, and often that the expenditures included in so-called research were little more than daily operating expenses or clinical trials for medications that had already been developed elsewhere. I am unaware of any instances where these undertakings were actually kept, and they remind me of the false promises made by so many American firms entering into JVs in China, where promises to develop and promote domestic brands proved to be plans to milk the JVs dry and kill the brands instead.

     大多数国家的政府都渴望看到国内研发的扩张,并且很容易成为制药公司实施的研究骗局的牺牲品,这些公司承诺大幅扩大在一个国家的研究支出,以换取更长的专利保护期。太多天真的政府已经落入了这一骗局,结果却发现承诺的研究从未实现,而且所谓的研究中包含的支出往往只不过是日常运营费用或其他地方已经开发的药物的临床试验。我不知道这些承诺是否真的得到了遵守,它们让我想起了许多美国公司在中国加入合资企业时做出的虚假承诺。事实证明,在中国,发展和推广国内品牌的承诺是为了榨干合资企业的奶,而不是扼杀品牌。

    In a National Post article in October of 2014, Tom Blackwell wrote that some years ago Canada entered an agreement with the international pharma companies to greatly lengthen their patent protection in exchange for a commitment to spend 10% of all revenue on R&D. In practice, the companies in totality reneged on their commitment, with R&D being at 4% or below, and even this figure being loaded with questionable expenses. (15) “The entire process was simply a cash grab with no intent to honor the research commitment. When presented with the evidence of these breaches of contract, the pharma companies invariably blamed Canada or other governments, claiming their local divisions have grave difficulty competing internationally, and lay the blame for this condition on the same government or its regulatory system or IP protection.”

     2014年10月,Tom Blackwell在《国家邮报》的一篇文章中写道,几年前,加拿大与国际制药公司签订了一项协议,大幅延长其专利保护期,以换取将全部收入的10%用于研发的承诺。实际上,这些公司完全违背了他们的承诺,研发率在4%或以下,甚至这个数字都有可疑的开支。(15) “整个过程只是一场现金抢夺,无意履行研究承诺。当看到这些违反合同的证据时,制药公司总是指责加拿大或其他政府,声称其本地部门在国际竞争中存在严重困难,并将这种情况归咎于同一个政府或其监管体系或知识产权保护。”

    As Blackwell pointed out, the extension of these drug monopolies not only delays entry of much-cheaper generics, but actually makes it harder for small domestic pharma companies to innovate, as their work often stems from existing medicines that are off patent. In all research, there is also the matter of the extreme emphasis on profit and marketability, driven by the business schools and large capitalists, which in the end will destroy the entire idea of scientific research and twist university research facilities into mis-shapen profit incubators bereft of any thought of benefit to humanity or society generally. It is also true that this insane and greed-driven push to maximise profits will almost assuredly serve to prevent truly useful medical discoveries since profits arise from controlling a disease rather than from curing it. It is only within the confines of truly non-profit and totally corporate-independent facilities that socially beneficial research will be conducted.

     正如布莱克威尔指出的那样,这些药物垄断的扩大不仅推迟了价格便宜得多的非专利药的进入,而且实际上使国内小型制药公司更难创新,因为它们的工作往往来自现有的非专利药。在所有研究中,还有一个问题是,在商学院和大型资本家的推动下,极度强调利润和市场化,这最终将摧毁整个科学研究的理念,并将大学研究设施扭曲成不合理的利润孵化器,失去对人类或整个社会有益的想法。同样,这种疯狂和贪婪驱动的利润最大化的努力几乎肯定会阻止真正有用的医学发现,因为利润来自控制疾病,而不是治愈疾病。只有在真正的非营利和完全独立于企业的设施范围内,才能进行对社会有益的研究。

    The secret non-elected government of the European Community organised a well-thought-out plan to benefit their European pharma companies friends by what was presented as an advanced method of encouraging pharmacological research for the good of the world. Their newly-created “Innovative Medicines Initiative”, (16) which was to be “an alliance of corporations and universities” with the aim of developing new medications, a program with billions in funding – all drawn from taxpayer money, of course. The stated goal was to encourage innovation in the creation of essential medicines through funding universities and small research companies. But this great initiative has been a complete disaster for everyone but the pharma companies for whom it was designed.

     欧洲共同体秘密的非民选政府组织了一个深思熟虑的计划,通过一种先进的方法鼓励药理学研究,造福于他们的欧洲制药公司的朋友。他们新创建的“创新药物倡议”(16)这将是一个“公司和大学联盟”,旨在开发新药,一个拥有数十亿资金的项目——当然,所有资金都来自纳税人的钱。声明的目标是通过资助大学和小型研究公司,鼓励基本药物的创新。但这项伟大的计划对所有人来说都是一场彻底的灾难,除了为其设计的制药公司。

    Through this program, the EU has siphoned off literally billions of dollars which have almost entirely disappeared into the coffers of the large Jewish European pharma companies – which are owned by the same individuals in the EU government who crafted this scheme. The German newspaper der Spiegel did an excellent review of this matter, demonstrating that the billions of dollars of taxpayer money have been spent almost exclusively as a tax-free subsidy to the pharma industry.

     通过这项计划,欧盟已经吸走了几十亿美元,这些美元几乎完全消失在大型犹太欧洲制药公司的金库中——这些公司的所有者正是制定这项计划的欧盟政府个人。德国报纸《明镜周刊》对此事进行了极好的评论,表明纳税人的数十亿美元资金几乎完全被用作对制药行业的免税补贴。

    Auto companies do the same thing, promising to build factories, expand production, create new jobs, but invariably fail to adhere to the promises, often doing the opposite of cutting jobs and closing factories. And in every case I have investigated, these contracts have never contained penalty clauses for failing to meet the commitments, meaning that local governments saddled their population with many extra years of much higher drug prices, and received nothing of benefit in exchange. These agreements have almost always been a one-sided hoax.

     汽车公司也做同样的事情,承诺建厂、扩大生产、创造新的就业机会,但总是不遵守承诺,往往与裁员和关闭工厂背道而驰。在我调查过的每一个案例中,这些合同从来没有包含不履行承诺的惩罚条款,这意味着地方政府让他们的民众承受了多年的药品价格高得多的额外负担,却没有得到任何好处。这些协议几乎总是单方面的骗局。

    Next: Part 3 – Side Effects & Trials

    下一篇:3部分副作用和试验

    *

    Mr. Romanoff’s writing has been translated into 32 languages and his articles posted on more than 150 foreign-language news and politics websites in more than 30 countries, as well as more than 100 English language platforms. Larry Romanoff is a retired management consultant and businessman. He has held senior executive positions in international consulting firms, and owned an international import-export business. He has been a visiting professor at Shanghai’s Fudan University, presenting case studies in international affairs to senior EMBA classes. Mr. Romanoff lives in Shanghai and is currently writing a series of ten books generally related to China and the West. He is one of the contributing authors to Cynthia McKinney’s new anthology ‘When China Sneezes’. (Chapt. 2 — Dealing with Demons).

    罗曼诺夫先生的作品已被翻译成32种语言,他的文章发布在30多个国家的150多个外语新闻和政治网站上,以及100多个英语平台上。拉里·罗曼诺夫是一位退休的管理顾问和商人。他曾在国际咨询公司担任高级管理职位,并拥有国际进出口业务。他曾是上海复旦大学的客座教授,向高级EMBA课程介绍国际事务的案例研究。罗曼诺夫住在上海,目前正在撰写一系列十本书,内容大致与中国和西方有关。他是辛西娅·麦金尼新文集的撰稿人之一“当中国打喷嚏时”2对付恶魔).

     

    His full archive can be seen at https://www.bluemoonofshanghai.com/  + https://www.moonofshanghai.com/  

    他的完整档案可在https://www.bluemoonofshanghai.com/  + https://www.moonofshanghai.com/  

     

    He can be contacted at: 2186604556@qq.com

    联系方式如下:2186604556@qq.com

     

    *

    NOTES

    注释

     

    Notes Pharma Part 2

    注制药第2部分

    (1) https://www.benzinga.com/general/biotech/17/02/9017199/curing-disease-is-bad-for-business-how-do-big-pharma-companies-continu

    Curing Disease Is Bad For Business: How Do Big Pharma Companies Continue Their Growth?

    治愈疾病对企业不利:大型制药公司如何继续增长?

    (2) https://www.ibtimes.co.uk/dr-john-ashton-claims-pharmaceutical-industry-ignoring-need-ebola-vaccine-1459534

    Dr John Ashton Claims Pharmaceutical Industry Ignoring Need For Ebola Vaccine

    约翰·阿什顿博士声称制药行业忽视了埃博拉疫苗的需求

    (3) https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/west-accused-of-tardiness-over-ebola-outbreak-9644671.html

    Ebola outbreak: Western drugs firms have not tried to find vaccine ‘because virus only affects Africans

    埃博拉疫情:西药公司没有试图找到疫苗,因为病毒只影响非洲人

    (4) https://www.healthcarepackaging.com/machinery-materials/package-design/blog/13287225/special-report-dirty-medicine

    Special report: Dirty medicine

    别报道:肮脏的药物

    (5) https://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2018/09/10/some-think-big-pharma-is-suppressing-a-cure-for-cancer-heres-why-that-could-never-happen/?sh=58631f64419c

    Some Think Big Pharma Is Suppressing A Cure For Cancer. Here’s Why That Could Never Happen

    一些人认为大型制药公司正在抑制癌症的治疗。这就是为什么这永远不会发生

    (6) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent_encumbrance_of_large_automotive_NiMH_batteries

    Patent encumbrance of large automotive NiMH batteries

    大型汽车镍氢电池的专利权负担

    (7) https://www.nbcnews.com/business/autos/gm-facing-snowstorm-suits-over-its-ignition-switch-recall-n60766

    GM Facing a Snowstorm of Suits Over Its Ignition Switch Recall

    通用汽车因其点火开关召回而面临诉讼风暴

    (8) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237286809_The_Ford_Pinto_Case_and_the_Development_of_Auto_Safety_Regulations_1893-1978

    The Ford Pinto Case and the Development of Auto Safety Regulations, 1893-1978

    福特平托案与汽车安全法规的发展,1893-1978

    (9) https://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/a6700/top-automotive-engineering-failures-ford-pinto-fuel-tanks/

    The Top Automotive Engineering Failures: The Ford Pinto Fuel Ta

    严重的汽车工程故障福特Pinto Fuel Ta

    (10) https://www.huffpost.com/entry/malady-mongers-how-drug-companies-sell-treatments-by-inventing-diseases_n_5b1ab5e4e4b0adfb8268c762

    Malady Mongers: How Drug Companies Sell Treatments By Inventing Diseases

    疾病贩子:制药公司如何通过发明疾病来销售治疗方法

    (11) https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/2015/07/14/new-method-of-deciding-who-should-take-statins-is-accurate-and-cost-effective-new-studies-show/

    New method of deciding who should take statins is accurate and cost-effective, new studies show

    最新研究显示,决定谁应该服用他汀类药物的新方法准确且成本效益高

    (12) https://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/05/science/herbal-supplements-are-often-not-what-they-seem.html

    Herbal Supplements Are Often Not What They Seem

    药补充剂往往不像看上去的那样

    (13) https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-11-222

    DNA barcoding

    DNA条形

    (14) https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/10135897/Pharmaceutical-scandal-firms-boast-of-profits-on-drugs-that-cost-pennies.html

    Pharmaceutical scandal: firms boast of profits on drugs that cost ‘pennies’

    药丑闻:制药公司夸耀自己在价格几分药品上获得了利润

    (15) https://nationalpost.com/news/canada/drug-companies-well-short-of-research-spending-they-promised-in-exchange-for-longer-patent-protection

    Drug companies well short of research spending they promised in exchange for longer patent protection

    药公司的研究经费远远不足,他们承诺要以更长的专利保护期作为交换

    (16) https://ec.europa.eu/info/research-and-innovation/research-area/health-research-and-innovation/innovative-medicines-initiative_en

    Innovative medicines initiative

    创新药物倡议

     

    Copyright © Larry RomanoffBlue Moon of ShanghaiMoon of Shanghai, 2022

    权所有(拉里·罗曼诺夫上海的蓝月亮上海之月, 2022