CH — LARRY ROMANOFF — 建立在谎言之上的国家 — 美国如何致富 — 第1卷 — 第六部分 — 间谍活动及更多

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建立在谎言之上的国家

1——美国如何致富

第六部分

© 拉里·罗曼诺夫,2021年10月

译者:珍珠

6部分间谍活动及更多

 

目录第6部分

国家赞助的商业间谍活动

    • 三叶草和梯队
    • 一些梯队示例

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后记

 

国家赞助的商业间谍活动

三叶草和梯队

After digesting its massive theft of ideas, things and people from Paperclip following the end of World War II, the US wasted no time in designing and implementing the world’s largest network of commercial espionage that has ever existed, and one which still exists in vastly expanded form today – as we saw from the revelations by Edward Snowden. Today, an astonishingly high percentage of the world’s internet traffic passes through the US on its way to Europe or Asia; a similar situation existed with telegraphy and telephone at the end of World War II, a situation the US government immediately exploited to the full. With the full cooperation of RCA, ITT and Western Union – who transmitted almost all of the US telegraphic traffic – the NSA was provided with daily microfilm copies of every telegraph entering, leaving and passing through the United States.

在消化了二战结束后从回形针中大量窃取思想、物品和人员的行为后,美国不失时机地设计和实施了有史以来世界上最大的商业间谍网络,而这一网络在今天仍然以巨大的扩张形式存在——正如我们从爱德华·斯诺登(Edward Snowden)的披露中看到的那样。如今,世界互联网流量中有高得惊人的比例通过美国进入欧洲或亚洲;第二次世界大战结束时,电报和电话也出现了类似的情况,美国政府立即充分利用了这种情况。在RCA、ITT和西联的全力合作下——他们传输了美国几乎所有的电报业务——NSA每天都会收到进出美国的每一封电报的缩微胶卷副本。(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

This was Project Shamrock, initiated in 1945 to access every telegraph message in a search for commercial intelligence that could help American firms be more “competitive” in international markets. The first intended target was of course Germany since that country had already demonstrated its vast superiority in science and development, but naturally the entire world quickly became a target, and Shamrock evolved into Echelon, doing the same things but on an almost infinitely larger and global scale.

这就是“三叶草计划”,于1945年发起,目的是访问每一条电报信息,寻找商业情报,帮助美国公司在国际市场上更具“竞争力”。第一个预定目标当然是德国,因为德国已经展示了其在科学和发展方面的巨大优势,但很自然,整个世界都很快成为了目标,三叶草进化成了梯队,做同样的事情,但规模几乎是无限大的。(10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18).

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Echelon began with the UK spying on Russia and Eastern Europe, which plan eventually involved the US and then evolved into something called the “Five Eyes” network, which has been described as the most powerful espionage club in the world, a clandestine commercial intelligence collection and analysis network of astonishing proportion, engineered by the US, and involving Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The system is designed to intercept and inspect communication from commercial satellite transmissions as well as global telephone calls, faxes, e-mail, public switched telephone networks, most Internet traffic, microwave links, undersea cables, and other civilian telecommunications traffic. The purpose is to obtain access to commercially beneficial information that could create competitive advantages to large firms – mostly American, since Echelon’s other members are not active in most industrial areas that concern the US.

梯队开始于英国对俄罗斯和东欧的间谍活动,该计划最终涉及美国,然后演变成一个被称为“五眼”的网络,被称为世界上最强大的间谍俱乐部,一个比例惊人的秘密商业情报收集和分析网络,由美国设计,涉及澳大利亚、加拿大、新西兰和英国。该系统设计用于拦截和检查商业卫星传输以及全球电话、传真、电子邮件、公共交换电话网络、大多数互联网流量、微波链路、海底电缆和其他民用电信流量的通信。其目的是获取商业上有益的信息,这些信息可以为大公司(主要是美国公司)创造竞争优势,因为梯队的其他成员在与美国有关的大多数工业领域并不活跃。

The system is so sophisticated that it utilizes voice-print recognition to identify the speech patterns of targeted individuals making international telephone calls, and automatically decides which conversations to monitor. Its existence was at first hotly denied by the US but is no longer in doubt, nor is there any doubt that the continued purpose of the system is to intercept and monitor private and commercial communications, and not military traffic. In fact, Echelon’s Management Committee recommended to the European Parliament that European citizens encrypt their communications because US intelligence agencies were conducting economic espionage with the system.

该系统非常复杂,它利用声纹识别来识别打国际电话的目标个人的语音模式,并自动决定监控哪些对话。它的存在一开始遭到美国的强烈否认,但现在已经没有任何疑问,也没有任何疑问该系统的持续目的是拦截和监控私人和商业通信,而不是军事通信。事实上,梯队管理委员会向欧洲议会建议欧洲公民加密他们的通信,因为美国情报机构正在利用该系统进行经济间谍活动。

Today, Echelon attempts to intercept and monitor every communications transaction transmitted by satellite, undersea cables, fiber optic, telephone lines, microwave and more, spying on every nation and, if possible, on every person, on earth. Moreover, it sorts and stores all this information in perpetuity, in the world’s largest database located in the American desert, in Bluffdale, Utah. This is state-sponsored commercial espionage on a global scale, intended primarily to benefit US multinational corporations in their quest for global dominance.

如今,梯队试图截获和监控通过卫星、海底电缆、光纤、电话线、微波等传输的每一项通信交易,监视每个国家,如果可能,还监视地球上的每个人。此外,它还将所有这些信息永久地分类存储在位于犹他州布拉夫代尔美国沙漠的世界上最大的数据库中。这是国家赞助的全球范围的商业间谍活动,主要目的是让美国跨国公司在寻求全球主导地位的过程中受益。

Echelon was initially revealed to the world in 1988 by a British journalist named Duncan Campbell, but the mainstream media refused to give him the microphone and his discovery came to naught. About ten years later, a New Zealand journalist named Nicky Hager wrote a book that should have caused an enormous international outrage but again he too failed to get control of the microphone. It was only the more recent and detailed revelations by Edward Snowden that finally lifted the lid on this international cockroach nest. In all three cases, the commercial aspects of Echelon were clearly outlined yet the US government managed to sabotage the publicity by claiming all espionage was to prevent terrorism.

1988年,一位名叫邓肯·坎贝尔(Duncan Campbell)的英国记者首次向全世界披露了“梯队”(Echelon),但主流媒体拒绝给他麦克风,他的发现化为乌有。大约十年后,一位名叫尼基·哈格(Nicky Hager)的新西兰记者写了一本书,本应引起国际社会的极大愤慨,但他还是没能控制住麦克风。只有爱德华·斯诺登(Edward Snowden)最近更详细的披露才最终揭开了这个国际蟑螂巢穴的盖子。在这三起案件中,梯队的商业方面都有明确的描述,但美国政府却设法破坏了宣传,声称所有间谍活动都是为了防止恐怖主义。

Shamrock and Echelon programs were designed more than 50 years ago for the sole purpose of industrial espionage, and Echelon continues today in vastly expanded form. When Shamrock first morphed into Echelon, communications technology was more primitive than today but the Americans nevertheless accomplished quite a lot with the few tools in their possession – and with the large numbers of German scientists in their captivity. There are literally hundreds of documented reports going back to the 1970s and 1980s when most of the telecom equipment was made in the US and was designed to accommodate American espionage efforts. In addition to finding ways to tap into all transatlantic cables and copying every telegram, the Americans finally displayed some of their renowned native innovation and creativity. For one, all fax machines and most large office copiers (at least those made by Xerox) came out of the factory “espionage-ready”, with back doors and instructions to forward all content to an Echelon receiving site. (19) (20) (21)  There are also hundreds of documented reports of the CIA installing “spy-ready” Xerox printers in all the foreign embassies in the US, and of Motorola producing telecom networks with back doors into the US Echelon system, and installing them worldwide. When the US government claims to collect only data related to terrorism, that is a lie of enormous magnitude.

三叶草和梯队计划在50多年前就被设计用于工业间谍活动,梯队计划在今天以巨大的扩展形式继续发展。当三叶草第一次演变成梯队时,通信技术比今天更为原始,但美国人仍然凭借手中的少数工具——以及大量被俘的德国科学家——取得了相当大的成就。事实上,有数百份记录在案的报告可以追溯到20世纪70年代和80年代,当时大多数电信设备都是在美国制造的,是为了适应美国的间谍活动。除了想方设法接入所有跨大西洋的电缆和复制每一封电报外,美国人最终还展示了他们一些著名的本土创新和创造力。首先,所有传真机和大多数大型办公室复印机(至少是施乐公司生产的复印机)都是从“间谍准备”工厂出来的,有后门和指示将所有内容转发到梯队接收站点。此外,还有数百份记录在案的报告称,中情局在所有驻美国的外国大使馆安装了“间谍就绪”的施乐打印机,以及摩托罗拉生产的电信网络,通过后门进入美国梯队系统,并在全球安装。(19) (20) (21) 当美国政府声称只收集与恐怖主义有关的数据时,这是一个巨大的谎言。

These processes have never abated but instead have become more clever and difficult to detect. It should be noted that Europe, and specifically Germany, is not a part of this network but is instead a victim. The reason we have the “Five Eyes” is that none of the other four (excepting the US) is a manufacturing nation and therefore (1) present no commercial threats to the US, (2) serve as useful puppet gathering posts with no benefit to themselves and, (3) serve as a very clever law-breaking mechanism by sharing the collected information with each other in order to circumvent restrictive domestic regulations on surveillance of citizens. If that isn’t clear, by law I cannot spy on my own countrymen so I instead spy on yours and share the information with you. You reciprocate, and neither of us have violated domestic law. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26)

这些过程从未减弱,反而变得更聪明、更难发现。应当指出,欧洲,特别是德国,不是这一网络的一部分,而是受害者。我们有“五只眼睛”的原因是,其他四个国家(美国除外)都不是制造业国家,因此(1)对美国没有商业威胁,(2)充当有用的傀儡聚集站,对他们自己没有好处,(3)作为一个非常聪明的违法机制,通过相互共享收集到的信息来规避国内关于公民监督的限制性法规。如果这还不清楚,根据法律,我不能监视我自己的同胞,所以我只能监视你的同胞,并与你分享信息。你报答了,我们都没有违反国内法。(22) (23) (24) (25) (26)

Ever since the end of World War II, the US government has used the CIA, the FBI and the NSA to conduct commercial espionage on a world-wide basis, intended to aid the competitiveness of US industry, and done so with a great deal more imagination than was reflected in the revelations by Edward Snowden. As time passed and the Cold War appeared to be ending, the US intelligence agencies needed a new purpose, and so the US government redirected them to state-sponsored commercial espionage as an offensive measure designed to perpetuate the then-existing US commercial supremacy by ensuring the potential theft of every new commercial idea from anywhere in the world. Gerald Burke, who served as Executive Director of President Nixon’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, claims that commercial espionage was endorsed by the US Government as early as 1970. He is quoted as saying: “By and large, we recommended that, henceforth, economic intelligence be considered a function of US national security, (with) a priority equivalent to diplomatic, military and technological intelligence.” Immediately after coming to office in January 1993, President Clinton added to the corporate espionage machine by creating the National Economic Council, which feeds stolen commercial intelligence to selected companies to enhance US “competitiveness”.

自第二次世界大战结束以来,美国政府一直利用中央情报局、联邦调查局和国家安全局在全球范围内进行商业间谍活动,目的是帮助美国工业的竞争力,并且比爱德华·斯诺登的披露更具想象力。随着时间的推移,冷战似乎即将结束,美国情报机构需要一个新的目标,因此,美国政府将他们转向国家赞助的商业间谍活动,以此作为一种进攻性措施,旨在通过确保世界各地每一种新的商业理念都有可能被窃取,从而延续当时美国的商业霸权。曾担任尼克松总统外交情报咨询委员会执行主任的杰拉尔德·伯克(Gerald Burke)声称,早在1970年,美国政府就批准了商业间谍活动。引用他的话说:“大体上,我们建议,从今以后,经济情报应被视为美国国家安全的一项职能,(优先)相当于外交、军事和技术情报。”,克林顿总统通过成立国家经济委员会为公司间谍机器增添了新的功能,该委员会将窃取的商业情报提供给选定的公司,以增强美国的“竞争力”。

Another official said, “US intelligence collection is not tasked by US corporations. It’s tasked by the government. However, communications intelligence is passed through channels to agencies, including the Department of Commerce and the White House, among others. There is a formal channel for passing communications intelligence data to companies.” He stated that “evidence of economic intelligence funneling can be found in public reports, including a 1996 Baltimore Sun article that reported that the Commerce Department routinely passed such information to select American corporate executives”. We can therefore safely put aside disclaimers from the US government that it does only “good” spying related to terrorism while countries like China do “bad” spying to steal commercial secrets.

另一位官员说:“美国情报收集工作不是由美国公司负责的。它是由政府负责的。但是,通信情报通过各种渠道传递给各机构,包括商务部和白宫等。有一个正式的渠道可以将通信情报数据传递给公司。”他表示,“经济情报漏斗的证据可以在公开报告中找到,包括1996年《巴尔的摩太阳报》的一篇文章,该文章报道美国商务部定期将此类信息传递给选定的美国企业高管”。因此,我们可以放心地搁置美国政府的免责声明,即它只做与恐怖主义有关的“好”间谍活动,而像中国这样的国家做“坏”间谍活动窃取商业秘密。

When Edward Snowden revealed the extent of the NSA worldwide intelligence collection network, many US officials tried their best to deflect criticism by claiming they collected only information related to terrorism, whereas China, unlike the saintly US, was collecting commercial intelligence. But then several countries including Germany and Brazil, went public with the information that the NSA had in fact penetrated many of their commercial establishments and had been stealing industrial technology and secrets. Having been slapped so hard and so publicly, the Americans finally went silent, but there was no indication of shame or embarrassment, just a thief’s normal regret at having been caught.

当爱德华·斯诺登(Edward Snowden)披露美国国家安全局全球情报收集网络的范围时,许多美国官员竭力转移批评,声称他们只收集与恐怖主义有关的信息,而与圣洁的美国不同,中国正在收集商业情报。但随后,包括德国和巴西在内的几个国家公开了信息,称国家安全局事实上已经渗透了它们的许多商业机构,并一直在窃取工业技术和机密。在被如此猛烈和公开地扇耳光之后,美国人终于沉默了下来,但没有任何羞愧或尴尬的迹象,只是一个小偷对被抓住的正常后悔。

The US is not the only nation engaging in this activity. According to Robert Gates, a former CIA Director, there are about 20 countries that engage in state-sponsored economic espionage in the US. The worst offender is Israel, followed by France, Russia and Britain. China is not high on this list. One of the more famous cases involving France was the discovery that France’s spy agency, the DGSE, had placed bugs in all the first-class cabins of Air France aircraft, for the purpose of recording conversations between travelling businessmen. Just so it doesn’t go unsaid, that 20-country list was prepared by the Americans, so it’s not a surprise they don’t appear at the top.

美国并不是参与这一活动的唯一国家。根据中情局前局长罗伯特·盖茨(Robert Gates)的说法,美国大约有20个国家参与国家赞助的经济间谍活动。罪魁祸首是以色列,其次是法国、俄罗斯和英国。中国在这一名单上排名不高。涉及法国的一个更著名的案件是发现法国间谍机构DGSE在法航飞机的所有头等舱内放置了窃听器,目的是记录旅行商人之间的对话。只是为了不让人说不出来,20个国家的名单是由美国人准备的,所以他们没有出现在榜首并不奇怪。

I would note here that there are also a great many American so-called “research” and other companies in China, some of which are primarily active in lobbying for US government interests, but many others are in fact intelligence operations, used to collect useful military and commercial information. Many of these are US multinationals like Coca-Cola, whose executives collect anything from market to political information and whose drivers appear adept at collecting militarily-useful GPS coordinates. American news reporters are another source. Almost all are heavily dependent on the US government or the CIA for funding, to the extent of billions of dollars in total. More later.

我想在此指出,在中国还有许多美国所谓的“研究”公司和其他公司,其中一些主要活跃于为美国政府利益游说,但其他许多公司实际上是情报部门,用于收集有用的军事和商业信息。其中许多是像可口可乐这样的美国跨国公司,其高管收集从市场到政治信息的任何信息,其司机似乎擅长收集军事上有用的GPS坐标。美国新闻记者是另一个来源。几乎所有这些国家都严重依赖美国政府或中央情报局的资金,总额高达数十亿美元。以后再说。

Some ECHELON Examples

一些梯队例子

There are many cases of industrial espionage and/or competitive intelligence which have been reported in various media. Often, the CIA, the NSA, the US Department of Commerce, the US State Department, American embassies, and other US agencies act as a coordinated team.

各种媒体报道了许多工业间谍和/或竞争情报案件。通常,中央情报局、国家安全局、美国商务部、美国国务院、美国大使馆和其他美国机构作为一个协调小组。

The US has for years regretted the fact that its wind and solar energy technologies were far behind those of China and Germany, so when the German firm Enercon produced a new wind turbine with compellingly attractive technical and competitive features the CIA and NSA went into combined action. The CIA illegally acquired all the technical information on this new product, while the NSA hacked into the systems and acquired the codes needed to enter and shut down Enercon wind generators so the technology and software could be copied. (27) (28) (29) (30)  The two agencies then patriotically delivered all the collected information to an American firm, Kenetech, who then filed for US patents on the product, software and systems. Enercon, the German firm that invented this technology, was then prohibited from exporting its own wind turbines to the US, and was sued in US courts by the US company Kenentech for breach of patent rights (on its own products!) on the grounds that Enercon (the German company) had obtained commercial secrets illegally! As President Obama has so frequently told us, “If the playing field is level, America will always win”.

多年来,美国一直对其风能和太阳能技术远远落后于中国和德国这一事实感到遗憾,因此,当德国公司Enercon生产出一种具有极具吸引力的技术和竞争特征的新型风力涡轮机时,中情局和美国国家安全局开始联合行动。中央情报局非法获取了这一新产品的所有技术信息,而国家安全局侵入了这些系统,获取了进入和关闭Enercon风力发电机所需的代码,以便复制技术和软件。(27) (28) (29) (30) 然后,这两个机构以爱国精神将收集到的所有信息交付给一家美国公司Kenetech,后者随后就产品、软件和系统申请了美国专利。发明这项技术的德国公司Enercon随后被禁止向美国出口自己的风力涡轮机,美国公司Kenentech在美国法庭上以Enercon(德国公司)非法获取商业秘密为由起诉Enercon(德国公司!)侵犯专利权!(31) (32) (33) 正如奥巴马总统经常告诉我们的那样,“如果公平竞争,美国将永远获胜”。

Then, to complete the leveling of the playing field which the Americans so much admire, the US government arranged to have a federal grand jury charged China-based Sinovel and two of its senior executives for allegedly stealing wind turbine software source code from a US engineering firm. (34) (35)  In fact, the Chinese firm had a clear contractual right to use and amend the source code in question, but the US Commerce Department strongly supported the charade since the legal intimidation of a grand jury is powerful, and raising an adequate defense even in conditions of clear innocence requires an enormous expense in funds and management time, sufficient to slow China down.

然后,为了完成美国人如此钦佩的公平竞争环境,美国政府安排了一个联邦大陪审团,指控中国华锐风电及其两名高级管理人员涉嫌从一家美国工程公司窃取风力涡轮机软件源代码。(34) (35) 事实上,这家中国公司拥有使用和修改相关源代码的明确合同权利,但美国商务部强烈支持这一把戏,因为对大陪审团的法律恐吓是强大的,即使在明确无罪的情况下,也要进行充分的辩护,这需要大量资金和管理时间,足以让中国减速。

Volkswagen accidentally discovered a large array of microphones and infrared cameras on its property, hidden in places from board rooms to lawn grass, that were transmitting images, technical specifications and information about new VW autos. Volkswagen discovered that their executive videoconferences had been recorded, including conversations on new products, price lists, secret plans for new auto plants, and plans for an especially attractive new small car. All of this information was tracked to the NSA, who had already forwarded all of it to General Motors and its Opel subsidiary in Germany. Volkswagen claimed this one act of espionage and the passing of information to its American competitors had caused losses of hundreds of millions of dollars. And Volkswagen can do nothing, still subject to the forced agreement that “Germany shall in the future raise no objections against the measures which have been, or will be, carried out with regard to German assets …”. “If the playing field is level, America will always win”.

大众汽车公司意外地在其酒店内发现了大量的麦克风和红外摄像机,它们隐藏在董事会会议室和草坪上,用于传输有关大众汽车新产品的图像、技术规格和信息。大众发现,他们的高管视频会议被录制下来,包括关于新产品、价格表、新汽车工厂的秘密计划以及一款特别吸引人的新型小型汽车的计划的对话。所有这些信息都被追踪到了国家安全局,国家安全局已经将所有信息转发给了通用汽车及其在德国的欧宝子公司。大众汽车声称,这一间谍行为以及向美国竞争对手传递信息造成了数亿美元的损失。大众汽车也无能为力,但仍受制于强制协议,即“德国今后不得对已经或将要对德国资产采取的措施提出异议……”。“如果公平竞争,美国将永远获胜”。

Japanese auto makers fared no better. At the request of the US president, the CIA spied on Japanese auto manufacturers, intercepting and recording information on their design plans for zero-emission cars, forwarding that information to US car manufacturers Ford, General Motors and Chrysler. The New York Times reported that the NSA and the CIA’s Tokyo station were involved in providing detailed information to US Trade negotiators in Geneva, facing Japanese car companies in a trade dispute. The Japanese accused the NSA of continuing to monitor the communications of Japanese companies on behalf of American companies. The CIA also hacked into the computer system of the Japanese Trade Ministry while that country was negotiating with the US on import limitations for Japanese cars. Having learned the Japanese position, the US was able to demand much lower auto import quotas than it had anticipated.

日本汽车制造商的表现也好不到哪里去。应美国总统的要求,中央情报局对日本汽车制造商进行了间谍活动,截取并记录了他们零排放汽车设计计划的信息,并将这些信息转发给美国汽车制造商福特、通用汽车和克莱斯勒。《纽约时报》报道说,美国国家安全局(NSA)和中央情报局(CIA)东京站参与向美国驻日内瓦贸易谈判代表提供详细信息,日本汽车公司面临贸易纠纷。日本指责国家安全局继续代表美国公司监控日本公司的通讯。中情局还入侵了日本贸易省的计算机系统,当时该国正与美国就日本汽车的进口限制进行谈判。在了解了日本的立场后,美国能够要求比预期更低的汽车进口配额。

With the ECHELON program still in full force, spying on, and hacking into, foreign government departments is a specialty of the NSA and CIA, whether those governments are friends or enemies. (36) (37) Some years ago, the NSA intercepted faxes and telephone calls concerning purchase negotiations between Airbus and the Saudi Arabian national airline. After forwarding this information to Airbus’s US competitors, Boeing and McDonnell-Douglas, the Americans won the $6 billion contract.

由于梯队计划仍在全面实施,对外国政府部门进行间谍活动和黑客入侵是美国国家安全局和中央情报局的专长,无论这些政府是朋友还是敌人。(36) (37) 几年前,国家安全局截获了有关空中客车公司和沙特阿拉伯国家航空公司之间采购谈判的传真和电话。在向空中客车公司的美国竞争对手波音公司和麦道公司转发了这一信息后,美国人赢得了价值60亿美元的合同。

The Brazilian government awarded the French firm Thomson-Alcatel a major multi-billion-dollar contract for the satellite monitoring of the Amazon Basin. (38) (39) (40) (41) (42) (43) (44) After the CIA and NSA intercepted government communications relating to the contract, the US had enough information to exert extreme pressure on Brazil to renege on the agreement, and the contract was then awarded to the US firm Raytheon. In a similar case, the NSA intercepted messages about an impending $200 million deal between Indonesia and the Japanese satellite manufacturer NEC Corp. After US intervention on behalf of American manufacturers, the contract was split between NEC and AT&T.

巴西政府授予法国汤姆森阿尔卡特公司价值数十亿美元的亚马逊流域卫星监测合同。在中情局和国家安全局截获与该合同有关的政府通信后,(38) (39) (40) (41) (42) (43) (44) 美国掌握了足够的信息,对巴西施加了极大的压力,迫使其背弃该协议,随后该合同被授予美国雷神公司。在类似的案例中,国家安全局截获了关于印度尼西亚和日本卫星制造商NEC公司即将达成2亿美元交易的消息。在美国代表美国制造商进行干预后,NEC和AT&T之间的合同被分割。

In another major case, the US President ordered the NSA and FBI to mount a massive surveillance operation at an Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference, to be held in Seattle. One intelligence source for the story related that over 300 hotel rooms had been bugged for the event. The effort was designed to obtain information regarding Asian oil and hydro-electric deals, with all information then passed on to high-level US government officials connected to American companies competing for the contracts.

在另一起重大案件中,美国总统下令国家安全局和联邦调查局在西雅图举行的亚太经济合作组织(APEC)会议上展开大规模监视行动。报道的一个情报来源说,有300多个酒店房间被窃听。这项工作旨在获取有关亚洲石油和水电交易的信息,然后将所有信息传递给与竞争合同的美国公司有关的美国政府高级官员。

Bribery is related to this category of acquiring wealth by stealth. The US is famous for its hypocrisy in condemning any foreign nation or corporation clumsy enough to be caught offering bribes, but it has a long history of paying bribes to obtain commercial contracts for its multinationals. Commercial and military aircraft constitute one area where the US has been especially active, having for one example paid substantial bribes to at least Italy, Belgium and Germany to purchase the US-based Lockheed F-104 aircraft, and bribes on behalf of Boeing are no longer news. Also, we have been told of many claims of US state-sponsored bribery in the cause of US firms. Often a nation is promised political or diplomatic benefits if it supports the free rampaging of US multinationals such as banks, in a domestic market. Much of this falls into the category of state-sponsored extortion, a category in which the US excels.

贿赂与这类通过秘密手段获取财富有关。美国以其伪善而闻名,它谴责任何外国或外国公司愚蠢到行贿被抓,但它为其跨国公司获得商业合同而行贿的历史由来已久。商用和军用飞机是美国特别活跃的一个领域,例如,至少向意大利、比利时和德国支付了巨额贿赂,以购买美国洛克希德F-104飞机,而代表波音公司的贿赂已不再是新闻。此外,我们还被告知,有许多指控称,美国政府为美国公司的事业赞助贿赂。通常,如果一个国家支持银行等美国跨国公司在国内市场上肆意横行,它就会获得政治或外交利益。其中大部分属于国家支持的敲诈勒索,而美国在这一类勒索中表现出色。

Protecting One’s Way to Prosperity

保驾护航

This is yet another major factor contributing to US economic domination, a process it still heavily indulges in today while condemning other nations for sins that are infinitely smaller. Protectionism is the policy of using the power of government regulations to discourage imports and prevent foreign take-overs of domestic markets and companies, using duties and taxes on imported goods, import quotas, as well as clever trade policies, bureaucracy, political pressure and a host of other methods. It is true there are occasions when a nation may have good and valid reasons to protect its industries and markets from predatory behavior by foreign governments and corporations, but it is primarily the predator nations, most notably the US, who are also the most protectionist. When the fox goes out to steal your chickens, it is careful to protect those chickens it already has, from being stolen by someone else. Protectionism is a talent with which America appears to have been unfairly and exceptionally well-endowed and for more than 200 years these commercial policies have been rampant in America, initiated by the US government to provide every advantage to its domestic industries.

这是促成美国经济统治的另一个主要因素,美国至今仍在沉迷于这一过程,同时谴责其他国家的罪恶,而这些罪恶是无穷小的。保护主义是一种利用政府监管权力阻止进口、防止外国收购国内市场和公司、对进口商品征收关税和税收、进口配额、以及巧妙的贸易政策、官僚作风、政治压力和一系列其他方法的政策。诚然,在某些情况下,一个国家可能有充分和有效的理由保护其产业和市场免受外国政府和公司的掠夺行为的影响,但主要是掠夺性国家,尤其是美国,也是最具保护主义的国家。当狐狸出去偷你的鸡时,它会小心地保护它已经拥有的鸡,以免被别人偷走。保护主义是一种天赋,美国似乎拥有这种天赋,这是不公平的,也是得天独厚的。200多年来,这些商业政策在美国一直猖獗,由美国政府发起,旨在为其国内产业提供一切优势。

Protectionism in its native state consists of little more than corporate welfare programs, classic examples of special interest groups using the force of government to obtain private benefits at the expense of the population. US industry groups like steel, auto manufacturing, textile and electronics, agriculture, gain hugely from the help of their government in restricting foreign competition. This is almost always damaging and expensive to domestic consumers who inevitably lose from these measures. But in the US, with the media on the same page as the government and the large multinationals, American consumers are usually unaware of what is being done to them. A typical example would be a tariff on foreign garments, which not only makes foreign goods more expensive but also permits domestic companies to substantially raise their prices now that they are free from competition. With high tariffs to protect domestic manufacturers from lower-cost Chinese imports, 300 million Americans were paying $20 more for a pair of blue jeans so that two or three influential domestic companies could earn an extra billion dollars in profits.

美国本土的保护主义只包括企业福利计划,这是特殊利益集团利用政府力量以牺牲民众利益为代价获取私人利益的典型例子。钢铁、汽车制造、纺织和电子、农业等美国产业集团在政府限制外国竞争的帮助下获得了巨大收益。这几乎总是对国内消费者造成损害,而且代价高昂,因为这些措施不可避免地会造成损失。但在美国,由于媒体与政府和大型跨国公司站在同一个版面上,美国消费者通常不知道对他们做了什么。一个典型的例子是对外国服装征收关税,这不仅使外国商品更加昂贵,而且允许国内公司在不存在竞争的情况下大幅提高价格。由于高关税保护国内制造商不受低成本中国进口产品的影响,3亿美国人为一条牛仔裤多付了20美元,这样两三家有影响力的国内公司就可以多赚10亿美元的利润。

In recent decades the US government maintained a constant media assault on China with complaints about low wages, an undervalued currency, product dumping, accusations of unfair subsidisation and other unspecified “cheating” by the Chinese, that produced China’s low costs and which necessitated protectionist retaliation by the US. But magically, when American multinationals moved their production to China to take direct advantage of those same low costs, the US government immediately dropped its textile tariffs and began to praise low costs. The obvious conclusion is that when Chinese firms export inexpensive blue jeans from China to the US, they do it because they are cheating and their currency is undervalued, but when American firms export inexpensive blue jeans from China into the US, the credit is due to American efficiency and ingenuity and the greatness of democracy. It should be apparent to readers that the costs and currency are the same in both cases.

近几十年来,美国政府一直在媒体上抨击中国,抱怨中国的低工资、货币低估、产品倾销、不公平补贴指控和其他未指明的“欺骗”,这导致了中国的低成本,并迫使美国采取保护主义报复。但神奇的是,当美国跨国公司将生产转移到中国以直接利用同样的低成本时,美国政府立即降低了纺织品关税,并开始赞扬低成本。显而易见的结论是,当中国公司从中国向美国出口廉价的牛仔裤时,他们这样做是因为他们在欺骗,他们的货币被低估,但当美国公司从中国向美国出口廉价的牛仔裤时,美国的效率、聪明才智和民主的伟大才是他们的功劳。读者应该清楚,在这两种情况下,成本和货币是相同的。

According to Patrick Buchanan,

据帕特里克·布坎南说, (45)

“Behind a tariff wall . . . the United States had gone from an agrarian coastal republic to become the greatest industrial power the world had ever seen – in a single century. Such was the success of the policy called protectionism that is so disparaged today.”

“在关税壁垒的背后……美国在一个世纪内从一个沿海农业共和国变成了世界上有史以来最大的工业强国。这就是今天备受蔑视的保护主义政策的成功。”

Buchanan is at least partly correct in his statement. Certainly, US industrial success has been assisted immeasurably from the constant and pervasive protectionist measures the US government has inflicted on foreign goods from the very beginning of the Republic. Once industrialization started, the US quickly learned the benefits of protectionism and experimented with various forms and rationales, including the necessity to “protect US manufacturers from the low wages of Europe”. Does that sound familiar? By the early 1800s, US import duties averaged more than 50%, and by 1900 trade tariffs had reached gigantic proportions and the US more or less abandoned any pretense that tariffs were to protect infant industries.

布坎南的说法至少部分正确。当然,美国政府从共和国成立之初就对外国商品采取了持续而普遍的保护主义措施,这对美国工业的成功起到了不可估量的帮助。一旦工业化开始,美国很快就认识到保护主义的好处,并尝试了各种形式和理由,包括“保护美国制造商免受欧洲低工资影响”的必要性。听起来熟悉吗?到19世纪初,美国的进口关税平均超过50%,到1900年,贸易关税已经达到了巨大的比例,美国或多或少地放弃了关税是为了保护幼稚产业的任何借口。

Perhaps in no other place were American protectionist measures so obviously predatory as in their military colonisation and plundering of undeveloped nations. When US firms extracted resources or raw materials from poorer countries, these products always entered the US duty-free. However, if any domestic companies of those nations attempted to export either raw materials or finished goods to the US, tariffs would be set at levels to preclude market entry, often reaching 50% to 80% and sometimes several hundred percent. However, the US used these colonies not only as a raw materials source but as finished goods markets, in which case no country was permitted to levy import duties of more than perhaps 5% against American goods, the countries being forced to sign treaties to this effect. Once again, the American version of fair play and a level playing field. All US Administrations have followed the predatory philosophy best stated by President Wilson when he said the doors of other countries would be battered down “even if the sovereignty of unwilling nations be outraged in the process.”

也许在其他任何地方,美国的保护主义措施都没有军事殖民和对不发达国家的掠夺那么明显。当美国公司从穷国提取资源或原材料时,这些产品总是免税进入美国。然而,如果这些国家的任何国内公司试图向美国出口原材料或制成品,关税将被设定在阻止市场进入的水平,通常达到50%到80%,有时甚至达到几百%。然而,美国不仅将这些殖民地用作原材料来源,还将其用作制成品市场,在这种情况下,任何国家都不允许对美国商品征收超过5%的进口关税,这些国家被迫签署相关条约。再一次,美国版的公平竞争和公平竞争环境。所有美国政府都遵循了威尔逊总统最好的掠夺性哲学,他说“即使不情愿的国家的主权在这一过程中受到侵犯”,其他国家的大门也会被推倒

Protectionism quickly became a permanent feature of US trade policy. When the Americans negotiated the Free Trade Agreements of GATT, the WTO, and NAFTA, this was not done from a lack of protectionist sentiment but rather from a perceived advantage and a powerful negotiating position compared to its trade partners. It was always clear that American intention in creating these so-called “Free Trade” agreements was primarily to force open other markets to US firms and products. The US never reduced its own trade barriers unless it gained far more in return, and even then much of the original protectionist measures remained. The US had the strength and negotiating power to force agreements worded primarily to benefit American corporations, and were done with the expectation that the US would win on all fronts. And of course, on the occasions when this advantage didn’t materialise as planned, the US was immediately whining about unfair trade and wanting ‘a level playing field’. The American position on trade represents hypocrisy at its finest. The US preaches free trade only when it is winning and profiting from it, but whenever it finds itself falling behind due to the lack of competitiveness of American firms, the free-market theory is quickly abandoned in favor of unfair trade. In the context of the world’s free trade agreements, much of the world remains bitter at the extent of US control over not only bodies like the WTO but also of their arbitration and other committees which rather too often arrive at surprising decisions that favor the US. Without this unfair influence, the US would have won almost no trade disputes and would be much the poorer for it.

保护主义很快成为美国贸易政策的永久特征。当美国人谈判关贸总协定、世贸组织和北美自由贸易协定时,这并不是因为缺乏保护主义情绪,而是因为与贸易伙伴相比,美国人具有明显的优势和强大的谈判地位。很明显,美国制定这些所谓的“自由贸易”协议的意图主要是迫使其他市场向美国公司和产品开放。美国从未减少过自己的贸易壁垒,除非它获得了更多的回报,即使如此,许多原始的保护主义措施仍然存在。美国有实力和谈判能力来强制达成协议,这些协议的措辞主要是为了美国公司的利益,并且是在期望美国能够在所有方面取得胜利的情况下达成的。当然,当这一优势没有按计划实现时,美国会立即抱怨不公平贸易,并要求“公平竞争环境”。美国在贸易问题上的立场是虚伪的。美国只有在赢得并从中获利时才鼓吹自由贸易,但当它发现自己由于美国企业缺乏竞争力而落后时,自由市场理论很快就会被抛弃,转而支持不公平贸易。在世界自由贸易协定的背景下,世界上许多国家仍然对美国不仅对世贸组织这样的机构,而且对它们的仲裁和其他委员会的控制程度感到不满,这些机构往往会做出有利于美国的令人惊讶的决定。如果没有这种不公平的影响,美国几乎不会赢得任何贸易争端,也会因此变得更加贫穷。

There are two currents in the protectionist river. One is mercantilist – a perhaps rational pursuit of profit for domestic manufacturers at the expense of foreign producers. The second is ideological and political, therefore often irrational and more difficult to combat. A major part of US mercantilist ideology is the excessively patriotic belief infused into Americans by incessant foolish propaganda that American corporations are the most efficient and produce the highest-quality goods in the world, the natural conclusion from this set of beliefs being that any nation surpassing the US must be cheating. The ideological current is also strongly infused with American exceptionalism and white supremacy. Americans whine when any nation acts to protect local industry sectors from destruction by the invasion of US multinationals because they deem it their God-given right to enter and plunder freely, regardless of the domestic destruction inflicted.

保护主义河流中有两股水流。一种是重商主义——可能是以牺牲外国生产商为代价对国内制造商利润的理性追求。二是思想政治上的,因此往往不理性,更难以打击。美国重商主义意识形态的一个主要部分是,通过不断愚蠢的宣传,美国公司是世界上效率最高、生产质量最高的产品,美国人被灌输了过度的爱国主义信念,从这一信念中自然得出的结论是,任何超过美国的国家都一定是在欺骗。这股意识形态潮流还强烈注入了美国例外论和白人至上主义。当任何国家采取行动保护当地工业部门不受美国跨国公司入侵的破坏时,美国人都会发出牢骚,因为他们认为这是上帝赋予他们的自由进入和掠夺的权利,而不管国内遭受的破坏如何。

Also stemming from ideology, and understandably distraught over its general lack of competitiveness in anything other than weapons of war, the US has increasingly politicised its trade conflicts, not only using trade policies as tools of colonisation, but encouraging the European Market and other nations to erect trade barriers to China in a concentrated and multi-pronged effort to “open” China in ways most advantageous to US hegemony, and to close it in every other way. In particular, the US government persists in its determination to destroy China’s SOEs (since it cannot compete with them), attacking them not on commercial but on moral and religious grounds, foolishly claiming government shareholding as prima facie evidence of foul play. At the same time, both the US and European countries heavily subsidise many of their exports to China, sometimes doing substantial harm to China’s domestic producers. The hypocrisy in these measures is really quite astonishing.

同样源于意识形态,并对其除战争武器以外的其他领域普遍缺乏竞争力感到不安,这是可以理解的,美国越来越多地将其贸易冲突政治化,不仅利用贸易政策作为殖民工具,但鼓励欧洲市场和其他国家对中国设置贸易壁垒,集中和多管齐下,以最有利于美国霸权的方式“开放”中国,并以其他方式关闭中国。特别是,美国政府坚持摧毁中国国有企业的决心(因为它无法与之竞争),攻击它们不是出于商业目的,而是出于道德和宗教原因,愚蠢地宣称政府持股是恶意行为的表面证据。与此同时,美国和欧洲国家都大幅补贴了它们对中国的许多出口,有时对中国的国内生产商造成了巨大伤害。这些措施的虚伪实在令人震惊。

The political and ideological side of US protectionist actions follow a typical pattern. First, the US government launches an inflammatory media blitz condemning China for multiple violations of WTO rules and all manner of illegal and unfair trade activities, invariably consisting of claims with no substance. The rhetoric is often extreme, with exaggerated and unsupportable claims of hundreds of thousands or millions of American jobs lost. After thus fanning the protectionist fires, the US arbitrarily levies punitive import duties meant to crush Chinese industries, and which are simply political extortion maneuvers meant to pressure China into admitting American firms into sensitive or national security sectors where China doesn’t want them. These include financial areas, telecommunication services and energy. But mostly what they want is to punish China for maintaining its SOEs which the Americans so bitterly hate because every thief dreams of robbing the biggest banks.

美国保护主义行动的政治和意识形态方面遵循典型模式。首先,美国政府发动了一场煽动性的媒体闪电战,谴责中国多次违反世贸组织规则以及各种非法和不公平的贸易活动,这些活动都是毫无实质内容的索赔。言辞往往是极端的,夸大和不可支持地宣称美国失去了几十万或数百万个工作岗位。在如此煽动保护主义之火之后,美国武断地征收惩罚性进口税,意在摧毁中国的产业,而这只是一种政治勒索手段,旨在迫使中国允许美国企业进入中国不想要的敏感或国家安全领域。这些领域包括金融领域、电信服务和能源。但他们最想要的是惩罚中国维持其国有企业,因为每个小偷都梦想抢劫最大的银行,所以美国人非常痛恨中国的国有企业。

A great deal of the extreme pressure applied to China on the RMB exchange rate had a similar goal, that of forcing China to further open its markets to US MNCs. All of the rhetoric about the RMB was nonsense, although if China could have been forced to revalue, then so much the better for the Americans. But failing that, they hoped to at least break into new markets and plunder yet more Chinese bank accounts. The US trade cases taken to the WTO are of the same intent, not vital in themselves but useful as pressure negotiating tools. And of course, the WTO is largely controlled by the US. The Americans aren’t so stupid as to create a worldwide trade body and actually give it authority over them. The WTO is no different than the International Court of Justice or the IMF; it’s just another tool of imperial conquest and needs to be seen as such. And all of the foolish comments like “China has to decide whether to conform and adapt to the norms of international trade or continue to be an outlier”, are just American propaganda and hypocrisy with that special Christian moral flavor: “We don’t want you to commit economic suicide for us. We want you to do it because it’s God’s will.”

对中国施加的人民币汇率的巨大极端压力有一个类似的目标,那就是迫使中国进一步向美国跨国公司开放其市场。所有关于人民币的言论都是胡说八道,尽管如果中国能够被迫升值,那么对美国人来说就更好了。但如果做不到这一点,他们希望至少打入新市场,掠夺更多的中国银行账户。美国向世贸组织提交的贸易案件具有相同的意图,它们本身并不重要,但可以作为压力谈判工具。当然,世贸组织主要由美国控制。美国人并没有愚蠢到创建一个世界性的贸易机构,并赋予它对他们的权威。世贸组织与国际法院或国际货币基金组织没有区别;它只是帝国征服的另一个工具,需要被视为帝国征服的工具。而所有愚蠢的评论,如“中国必须决定是遵守和适应国际贸易准则,还是继续成为一个局外人”,都只是美国的宣传和伪善,带有特殊的基督教道德味道:“我们不希望你为我们经济自杀。我们希望你这样做,因为这是上帝的意愿。”

Since the US financial meltdown in 2007, and its beleaguered economy still showing no signs of recovery after nearly a decade, the US dramatically escalated its protectionist attitudes, with hundreds of trade complaints against China, almost all unjustified. The list of targeted products grew larger by the week, with the US government even levying double tariffs in dozens of cases, against its own commitment to international trade rules and agreements, and all declared illegal by the WTO. China does of course protest and challenge all of these American protectionist measures, but these defenses are time-consuming and expensive even when China eventually wins the cases. In many instances, American law does not authorise the government to take trade actions, but the US has repeatedly ignored its own laws to launch dozens of so-called trade ‘investigations’ against China during the past few years. When a US court ruled that the US government did not have the right to impose higher tariffs on goods from China, the Americans found a creative way to legalise their illegal actions. The US Congress passed new laws and backdated them four years, then levied the tariffs anyway. One has to admire the flexibility of American law enforcement and legislation, to say nothing of the apparent flexibility in the American concept of ‘rule of law’. And of course, making ‘a level playing field’. It should be noted the Western media play an active supporting role in this vast hypocrisy by first launching their demonisation blitz then publishing exaggerated articles about the necessity for the US to file yet another trade complaint against China. They then go silent, with the public never realising those filed trade complaints almost inevitably come to nothing.

自2007年美国金融危机以来,其陷入困境的经济在近十年后仍然没有任何复苏迹象,美国的保护主义态度急剧升级,数百起针对中国的贸易投诉几乎都是毫无道理的。目标产品的清单一周比一周更大,美国政府甚至在数十起案件中征收双重关税,违反其自身对国际贸易规则和协议的承诺,并且所有这些都被世贸组织宣布为非法。中国当然抗议和挑战美国的所有这些保护主义措施,但即使中国最终胜诉,这些辩护也是耗时和昂贵的。在许多情况下,美国法律没有授权政府采取贸易行动,但美国在过去几年中一再无视自己的法律,对中国发起了几十次所谓的贸易“调查”。当一家美国法院裁定美国政府无权对来自中国的商品征收更高关税时,美国人找到了一种创造性的方式将其非法行为合法化。美国国会通过了新的法律,并将其追溯到四年前,然后征收关税。人们不得不佩服美国执法和立法的灵活性,更不用说美国“法治”概念的明显灵活性了。当然,创造一个“公平竞争的环境”。应该指出的是,西方媒体在这一巨大的伪善中起到了积极的支持作用,他们首先发动了妖魔化闪电战,然后发表了夸大的文章,认为美国有必要再次对中国提出贸易投诉。然后他们沉默了下来,公众从未意识到这些贸易投诉几乎不可避免地会化为乌有。

The US government has cleverly enacted some trade laws that have become the world’s most efficient and vicious non-tariff trade barrier. The US International Trade Commission can launch what it calls Section 337 (46) (47)  investigations against foreign companies for any purpose, with US companies regularly abusing this legislation for protectionist purposes that are clearly illegal. These investigations are a quasi-judicial trade measure the United States uses to protect its local companies from competition from imported products. Once a Section 337 investigation is initiated, the products in question and even similar products may be banned from the US market forever, even though the entire process is unlawful by international trade standards. In recent years, US companies have become increasingly fond of claiming alleged patent or IP infringements, and used these 337 investigations simply as a business strategy to drive out Chinese competitors and grab a larger market share. When Chinese companies must face these charges levied against them by American firms, they will necessarily suffer heavy losses whether or not they win the case. If a Chinese company does not respond immediately, its products will by US law be automatically excluded from the US market. But to defend such cases, a Chinese firm may have to pay many tens of millions of dollars for various charges, legal fees, and many other costs. This is a truly vicious piece of US protectionist legislation, and is only one such weapon in the US armory against foreign competition – invariably used whenever the US cannot compete. Due to these new laws, it is a simple and painless matter for a US company not only to obtain government assistance against foreign competitors, but often to permanently cripple them. (48)  For these investigations, the US government supplies all the lawyers and pays most of the costs, while the foreign companies spend millions of dollars and months of time to defend themselves against accusations that are almost always groundless.

美国政府聪明地制定了一些贸易法,这些法律已成为世界上最有效、最恶劣的非关税贸易壁垒。美国国际贸易委员会(US International Trade Commission)可以出于任何目的对外国公司展开所谓的第337节调查 (46) (47),美国公司经常滥用这项立法,以达到明显非法的保护主义目的。这些调查是美国用来保护本国公司免受进口产品竞争的准司法贸易措施。一旦启动第337节调查,相关产品甚至类似产品可能永远被禁止进入美国市场,尽管按照国际贸易标准,整个过程都是非法的。近年来,美国公司越来越喜欢声称专利或知识产权侵权,并将这337项调查仅仅作为一项商业战略,驱逐中国竞争对手,抢占更大的市场份额。当中国公司必须面对美国公司对其提出的这些指控时,无论他们是否胜诉,他们都必然遭受重大损失。如果一家中国公司不立即作出回应,根据美国法律,其产品将自动被排除在美国市场之外。但要为这些案件辩护,中国公司可能需要支付数千万美元的各种费用、法律费用和许多其他费用。这是美国保护主义立法中真正邪恶的一项,也是美国军械库中唯一一项反对外国竞争的武器——在美国无法竞争时总是使用这种武器。由于这些新的法律,美国公司不仅要获得政府对外国竞争对手的援助,而且往往要永久削弱外国竞争对手,这是一件简单而无痛的事情。(48) 对于这些调查,美国政府提供所有律师并支付大部分费用,而外国公司则花费数百万美元和数月的时间为自己辩护,以应对几乎总是毫无根据的指控。

With this imaginative American process, it often isn’t necessary to actually impose the tariffs or other duties. These trade investigations are sufficient in themselves to destroy foreign competitors since the investigating body can, and frequently does, demand unlimited quantities of documents with short turnaround time and will impose crushing penalties for failure to comply. America’s so-called ‘International Trade Commission’ has on many occasions been irresponsibly ruthless, and even vicious, in applying these prosecutions to protect American industries. Here are two examples:

在这种富有想象力的美国过程中,通常没有必要实际征收关税或其他关税。这些贸易调查本身足以摧毁外国竞争对手,因为调查机构可以而且经常要求无限量的文件,周转时间短,并将对不遵守规定的行为处以严厉的惩罚。美国所谓的“国际贸易委员会”(International Trade Commission)为了保护美国的产业,多次采取不负责任的无情甚至恶毒的起诉行动。以下是两个例子:

“In one case, Matsushita withdrew from an antidumping case and abandoned more than $50 million in export sales, because the Commerce Department demanded on a Friday that it translate 3,000 pages of Japanese financial documents into English by the following Monday morning. (49)  In another case, the Commerce Department demanded that the management of a small Taiwan company supply it with more than 200,000 pieces of information and reply to a 100-page questionnaire that was written in English. But the management of the company consisted of only a husband and wife, and they were unable to respond. Using this lack of immediate response as an excuse, the US Commerce Department levied an “anti-dumping” duty of almost 60% on Taiwanese sweaters, making it impossible for these firms to survive. Within a year from the time this so-called “investigation” started, more than two-thirds of the companies that produced acrylic sweaters in Taiwan went out of business.” This is one way the US “levels the playing field” for its own multinationals.

“在一个案例中,松下退出了一个反倾销案,放弃了5000多万美元的出口销售,因为商务部在一个星期五要求它在下一个星期一上午之前将3000页的日本金融文件翻译成英语。(49) 在另一个案例中,商务部要求台湾商城公司向其提供了20多万条信息,并回复了一份100页的英文问卷,但该公司的管理层只有一对夫妻,他们无法做出回应,美国商务部以此为借口,提出了“反倾销”“台湾羊毛衫几乎60%的关税,使得这些公司无法生存。从这项所谓的“调查”开始不到一年,台湾三分之二以上的亚克力毛衣生产企业就倒闭了。“这是美国为自己的跨国公司“创造公平竞争环境”的一种方式。

In a classic protectionist maneuver, the US created an historic episode known as “The Chicken War”. France and Germany had placed tariffs of 2% or 3% on imports of US chicken, to which the US objected and responded by imposing a punitive tax of 25% on a huge range of European products, including the Volkswagen minibus. (50) (51) (52) (53) (54)  Declassified documents later revealed that the minibus was included because the US auto unions were proposing a strike just prior to a Presidential election, and US President Johnson made a deal with the unions to punish Volkswagen’s success in America in return for abandoning the strike. Johnson therefore had the US Commerce Department re-classify the VW minibus as a truck to qualify it for the duty. The result was devastating: German truck exports to the US plunged by 35%, and the beloved minibus disappeared from the US market, never to be seen again. As of today, that “chicken tax” on the VW minibus still exists. This is the only reason the US automakers are so successful in selling light trucks in their home market; the competition has been obliterated by protectionist in the name of creating the “level playing field” that the Americans claim to venerate.

在一个经典的保护主义策略中,美国制造了一个历史性事件,称为“鸡战争””法国和德国对进口美国鸡肉征收2%或3%的关税,对此美国表示反对,并对包括大众小巴在内的大量欧洲产品征收25%的惩罚性关税。(50) (51) (52) (53) (54) 后来解密的文件显示,小巴被包括在内是因为美国汽车工会在总统选举前提议罢工,而美国总统约翰逊与工会达成协议,惩罚大众汽车在美国的成功,作为放弃罢工的回报。因此,约翰逊要求美国商务部将大众小巴重新归类为卡车,以使其符合该关税的要求。结果是毁灭性的:德国对美国的卡车出口下降了35%,深受喜爱的微型巴士从美国市场消失,再也看不到了。到今天为止,对大众小巴征收的“鸡税”仍然存在。这是美国汽车制造商在国内市场销售轻型卡车如此成功的唯一原因;保护主义者以创造美国人所崇敬的“公平竞争环境”的名义抹杀了这场竞争。

US protectionism was in great evidence against Japan in the 1980s, when the great America became genuinely afraid of Japan’s production efficiency and its high-quality goods. Japan’s success had Americans calling the Japanese ‘supermen’, and genuine fear was generated when Japan suddenly began repatriating its accumulated surpluses and buying American corporate icons like Universal Studios, Columbia Records, the Rockefeller Center, the Pebble Beach Golf Club, and more. Columnist William Safire, among others, wrote a blistering article in the New York Times about “The Yellow Peril”, and there were cries everywhere of “Where will Japan strike next?” In all of that, the Americans convinced themselves that Japan was somehow ‘cheating’, just as with China today, and adopted countless protectionist measures designed to combat Japan’s manufacturing advantages.

20世纪80年代,美国的保护主义是对日本不利的重要证据,当时大美国真正害怕日本的生产效率和高质量产品。日本的成功让美国人称日本为“超人”,而当日本突然开始将其积累的盈余汇回本国,并购买美国的公司标志,如环球影城、哥伦比亚唱片公司、洛克菲勒中心、卵石滩高尔夫俱乐部等时,就产生了真正的恐惧。专栏作家威廉·萨菲尔(William Safire)和其他人在《纽约时报》上写了一篇关于“黄祸”的激烈文章,到处都在喊“日本下一步将向何处进攻?”在这一切中,美国人确信日本不知何故在“作弊”,就像今天的中国一样,并采取了无数旨在打击日本制造业优势的保护主义措施。

The US began making increasingly shrill accusations about Japan, increasingly unreasonable demands, and increasingly stupid threats. At one point, in order to ensure “fair trade” and “a level playing field”, US President Reagan proposed a 100% tax on all products made in Japan. That didn’t happen but the US began to apply increasingly heavy import duties on many Japanese products. One was a 50% duty on all Japanese motorcycles, which was the only thing that saved US-based Harley-Davidson from extinction; another was a 100% tariff on Japanese luxury vehicles. Since the US auto industry was in free-fall and couldn’t hope to compete with Japanese firms, Japan was also forced into “voluntary” export agreements where it would limit its sales to the US.

美国开始对日本提出越来越尖锐的指责、越来越不合理的要求和越来越愚蠢的威胁。有一次,为了确保“公平贸易”和“公平竞争环境”,美国总统里根提议对所有日本制造的产品征收100%的税。这并没有发生,但美国开始对许多日本产品征收越来越重的进口税。一是对所有日本摩托车征收50%的关税,这是唯一使美国哈雷戴维森免于灭绝的办法;另一个是对日本豪华车征收100%的关税。由于美国汽车工业处于自由落体状态,无法与日本企业竞争,日本也被迫签订“自愿”出口协议,限制对美国的销售。

None of the above measures proved sufficient to forestall Japan’s rise or America’s decline, and in one of the greatest protectionist measures of all time the US browbeat Japan to sign the 1985 “Plaza Accord”(55) (56) (57) (58), an agreement to revalue the Yen. Just as with the Chinese RMB in recent years, the US claimed that Japan’s currency was too low, even though it had already appreciated from 360:1 to 240:1. Within two years the Yen doubled in value against the US dollar, crippling Japan’s economy – a fate from which it still has not recovered. You can see there are many ways to “level the playing field”. The US government has tried the same with China, for many years exerting enormous political and media pressure for a revaluation of the RMB, with many US officials claiming the Chinese currency was “at least 40% undervalued”. Of course, it was no such thing, as history has proven; the RMB was trading all along in the appropriate range, but US officials hoped to duplicate their success with Japan and force China to commit economic suicide by a major revaluation. Fortunately, China is not a US military colony as is Japan, and the Americans had insufficient leverage to accomplish their dirty deed.

上述措施都不足以阻止日本的崛起或美国的衰落,而在有史以来最大的保护主义措施之一中,美国威逼日本签署了1985年的“广场协议”(Plaza Accord)(55) (56) (57) (58),这是一项让日元升值的协议。正如近年来人民币升值一样,美国声称日本货币太低,尽管它已经从360:1升值到240:1。两年内,日元兑美元汇率翻了一番,使日本经济陷入瘫痪——日本至今仍未从这一命运中恢复过来。你可以看到有很多方法可以“公平竞争”。多年来,美国政府对中国也采取了同样的做法,对人民币升值施加了巨大的政治和媒体压力,许多美国官员声称人民币“至少低估了40%”。当然,历史已经证明,这不是什么事情;人民币一直在适当范围内交易,但美国官员希望复制他们在日本的成功,并通过大幅升值迫使中国经济自杀。幸运的是,中国不像日本那样是美国的军事殖民地,美国人没有足够的筹码来完成他们的肮脏行为。

Some years ago, the US forestry industry was having a rough patch. The US dollar was high and Canadian lumber (for building houses) was relatively much cheaper. So, the US Government arbitrarily levied a punitive duty of about 40% on all Canadian lumber. The Canadian forestry companies were not cheating or being subsidised, but US companies couldn’t compete so the government ‘leveled the playing field’ by an illegal duty that made Canadian products almost prohibitively expensive and severely damaged the Canadian forest industry. (59) (60) (61) (62) (63)  To make matters worse, the “duty” was paid not to the US government, but to the US forestry companies. So now the US firms had a closed lumber market in which Canada would have to pay the US producers a huge cost differential on their exports to the US, effectively paying US lumber companies the value of all their lost sales.

几年前,美国林业行业正处于艰难时期。美元走高,加拿大木材(用于建造房屋)相对便宜得多。因此,美国政府任意对所有加拿大木材征收约40%的惩罚性关税。加拿大林业公司没有作弊或获得补贴,但美国公司无法竞争,因此政府通过非法关税“公平竞争”,使加拿大产品价格几乎高得令人望而却步,严重损害了加拿大林业。(59) (60) (61) (62) (63) 更糟糕的是,“关税”不是付给美国政府,而是付给美国林业公司。因此,现在美国公司拥有一个封闭的木材市场,在这个市场上,加拿大将不得不向美国生产商支付其向美国出口产品的巨大成本差额,实际上是向美国木材公司支付其所有销售损失的价值。

Of course, the WTO ruled this was illegal and that all the duties collected had to be refunded, but by then almost three years had passed, the US dollar was down again and the Canadian industry was no longer a threat. The US eventually dropped the tariffs, but the damage was done. In spite of the illegality of the duties and the direct order from the WTO to refund the money, the US demanded that Canada ‘negotiate’ the amount of duties to actually be repaid. In the end, the US refunded only about half of the money collected. By then, the US forestry giants were flush with cash (paid by the Canadian companies) and ready to buy up all those same Canadian firms with their own money. In the US, this is known as “leveling the playing field” and of course “playing by the rules”.

当然,世贸组织裁定这是非法的,征收的所有关税都必须退还,但到那时几乎三年过去了,美元再次贬值,加拿大工业不再是威胁。美国最终取消了关税,但造成了损害。尽管这些关税是非法的,而且世贸组织直接下令退还这笔钱,但美国要求加拿大就实际应偿还的关税金额进行“谈判”。最后,美国只退还了所收款项的一半左右。到那时,美国林业巨头已经拥有了大量现金(由加拿大公司支付),并准备用自己的钱收购所有这些加拿大公司。在美国,这被称为“公平竞争环境”,当然也被称为“按规则行事”。

There may be no US product category more deserving of contempt than that of agriculture, where the blatant protectionism is at an astonishing level. The US heavily subsidises its agricultural sector which encourages overproduction, generating surpluses that are then dumped on the world markets at prices well below production costs, while posting tariff and other barriers on agricultural imports. Haiti is one of the poorest countries in the world, but US firms sell American rice in Haiti at prices lower than Haiti’s domestic costs of production – a subsidy of probably 80% or more. The same is true of sugar cane, ethanol, and a multitude of other products. Brazil can produce fuel ethanol at 10% of the US costs, so the US “leveled the playing field” by imposing a tariff of 54 cents per gallon on foreign ethanol while paying US refiners a subsidy of another 45 cents, shutting Brazil out of the export markets. The result was more than $6 billion in annual ethanol subsidies to US producers and a remarkable increase in food prices, most notably corn. The US is also unforgivably ruthless in dumping agricultural products to destroy the productivity in other nations while creating markets for its own firms. When the US began its program to destablise Cuba, its first act was to impose huge tariffs on Cuban sugar imports which wrecked the Cuban economy but created a new market for Sanford Dole who had just succeeded in hijacking the nation of Hawaii. The US is doing something similar to China today with its subsidised exports of GM crops such as soybeans; the purpose of the subsidised low prices is to drive Chinese producers out of the market, after which the US will control much of China’s food supply and can raise prices to any level. This is already occurring in China, and is a template the US applies worldwide.

也许没有任何一种美国产品类别比农业更值得蔑视,因为农业公然的保护主义达到了令人震惊的程度。美国大量补贴其农业部门,鼓励生产过剩,产生盈余,然后以远低于生产成本的价格倾销到世界市场,同时对农产品进口设置关税和其他壁垒。海地是世界上最贫穷的国家之一,但美国公司在海地销售美国大米的价格低于海地的国内生产成本——补贴可能在80%以上。甘蔗、乙醇和许多其他产品也是如此。巴西可以以美国成本的10%生产燃料乙醇,因此美国通过对外国乙醇征收每加仑54美分的关税,同时再向美国炼油厂支付45美分的补贴,将巴西排除在出口市场之外,从而“公平竞争”。结果是每年向美国生产商提供超过60亿美元的乙醇补贴,食品价格显著上涨,其中最显著的是玉米。美国也不可原谅地无情地倾销农产品,破坏其他国家的生产力,同时为自己的公司创造市场。当美国开始其破坏古巴稳定的计划时,其第一个行动是对古巴糖进口征收巨额关税,这破坏了古巴经济,但为刚刚成功劫持夏威夷国家的桑福德·多尔创造了一个新市场。如今,美国在大豆等转基因作物的补贴出口方面正在做着与中国类似的事情;补贴低价的目的是将中国生产商赶出市场,之后美国将控制中国的大部分食品供应,并可以将价格提高到任何水平。这已经在中国发生,并且是美国在世界范围内应用的模板。

China’s auto exports are expanding by more than 20% annually but there are no Chinese cars in America. The question is, why not? The simple answer of course is US Federal Crash Standards. As Forbes magazine explained, “In a seemingly eternal battle of cat and mouse, as soon as Chinese manufacturers meet Euro 5 emissions or build a car that has NCAP 4 stars or better, a new range of standards and guidelines appear.” We then need to ask ourselves who are the real trade protectionists, and who is manipulating the rules of trade when they cannot compete? Is it the US or China? Certainly, if China played the same game as the US does on auto standards, there would be no American cars in China. And that would be a good thing.

中国的汽车出口每年以超过20%的速度增长,但美国没有中国汽车。问题是,为什么不呢?当然,简单的答案是美国联邦碰撞标准。正如《福布斯》杂志所解释的,“在一场看似永恒的猫捉老鼠的战斗中,一旦中国制造商达到欧5排放标准或制造出NCAP 4星或更高的汽车,就会出现一系列新的标准和指导方针。”然后我们需要问自己,谁才是真正的贸易保护主义者,当他们无法竞争时,谁在操纵贸易规则?是美国还是中国?当然,如果中国在汽车标准方面和美国玩同样的游戏,中国就不会有美国汽车。这将是一件好事。

As another example, the US levied a 55% duty on low-cost auto tires from China. No US manufacturer made tires in this price range, so China’s exports were not harming any US firms, and in fact were helping to maintain low retail prices in the US. Obama presented these punitive duties as “creating American jobs”, but no jobs were actually created, and the main result was that 300 million Americans now had to pay 55% more for their automobile tires. The US “punished” China by hugely increasing costs for its own citizens. After five years of ‘punishment’, the US Commerce department arranged for the American United Steelworkers Union to file another action request, claiming – without evidence – severe damage to the American tire industry caused by Chinese imports “unfairly benefiting from government subsidies” or otherwise being “sold below fair value” on the US market. In these cases, it is important to note that the definition of “fair value” is a price that American manufacturers cannot meet. Whenever American firms are uncompetitive in price – which is most of the time – foreign firms are accused of ‘dumping’ goods, of selling them below ‘fair market value’, thereby triggering more protectionist measures to bring the price of foreign goods to a high enough level that US companies can compete. These policies are almost always enormously dishonest and hypocritical, though again the media are always silent so few are aware of the details. With the Chinese auto tires, American companies like Cooper who export their production from China to the US will pay a proposed duty of only 12.5%, while Chinese firms exporting similar tires to the US at the same cost level, will pay duties of over 80%. In the US, this is known as leveling the playing field.

另一个例子是,美国对来自中国的低成本汽车轮胎征收55%的关税。没有一家美国制造商生产这种价格范围的轮胎,因此中国的出口没有损害任何美国公司,事实上,这有助于维持美国的低零售价格。奥巴马将这些惩罚性关税称为“创造美国就业机会”,但实际上没有创造就业机会,主要结果是3亿美国人现在不得不为汽车轮胎多付55%。美国通过大幅增加本国公民的成本来“惩罚”中国。在五年的“惩罚”后,美国商务部安排美国钢铁工人联合会(United Steelworkers Union)提出另一项诉讼请求,在没有证据的情况下,声称中国进口产品“不公平地受益于政府补贴”或“以低于公允价值的价格出售”对美国轮胎行业造成了严重损害在美国市场上。在这些情况下,需要注意的是,“公允价值”的定义是美国制造商无法满足的价格。每当美国公司在价格上缺乏竞争力时(大多数情况下),外国公司就会被指控“倾销”商品,以低于“公平市场价值”的价格出售商品,从而引发更多的保护主义措施,将外国商品的价格提高到足以让美国公司参与竞争的水平。这些政策几乎总是非常不诚实和虚伪,尽管媒体总是保持沉默,很少有人知道细节。对于中国汽车轮胎,像库珀这样从中国向美国出口产品的美国公司将只缴纳12.5%的拟议关税,而以相同成本水平向美国出口类似轮胎的中国公司将缴纳80%以上的关税。在美国,这被称为公平竞争。

An American executive stated that “US tire manufacturers made the decision years ago to shift production of these lower-cost tires out of the US. All this action will do is force them to shift production to other countries”, which is exactly what happened. After nearly two years of struggle, a Chinese businessman set up a tire factory in Thailand, primarily to avoid the US tariffs. And of course, that was the intent; either drive the Chinese firms out of business, or drive the businesses out of China. Either way, the US gains an imperial victory. The enormous extra cost to American consumers is ignored because the only objective is to produce higher profits for US multinationals and the few elites who control them, to further the transfer of wealth from the middle and lower classes to the top 1%. Democracy in action. The US has done the same to China in a number of areas. Tianjin steel pipe was selling in the US at a 20% premium over its domestic price in China but American firms still couldn’t compete so the US levied a total duty of almost 60% on these steel products, driving Chinese exports down by 75%. Once again, Chinese firms are faced with the choice of closing down or moving their production out of China, since it isn’t always easy or possible to quickly develop new export markets. Many US duties on Chinese products are as high as 100% and some have reached more than 300%, on many billions of dollars’ worth of exports.

一位美国高管表示,“美国轮胎制造商多年前做出了将这些低成本轮胎的生产转移到美国以外的决定。所有这些行动将迫使他们将生产转移到其他国家”,这正是发生的事情。经过近两年的斗争,一位中国商人在泰国建立了一家轮胎厂,主要是为了避免美国的关税。当然,这就是目的;要么将中国企业赶出中国,要么将企业赶出中国。不管怎样,美国都获得了帝国的胜利。美国消费者的巨大额外成本被忽视了,因为唯一的目标是为美国跨国公司和控制它们的少数精英创造更高的利润,推动财富从中下层阶级向顶层1%转移。民主在行动。美国在许多领域也对中国采取了同样的措施。天津钢管在美国的销售价格比在中国的国内价格高20%,但美国公司仍然无法竞争,因此美国对这些钢铁产品征收了近60%的总关税,导致中国出口下降了75%。再一次,中国企业面临着关闭或将生产迁出中国的选择,因为快速开发新的出口市场并不总是容易或可能的。许多美国对中国产品的关税高达100%,有些甚至超过了价值数十亿美元的出口的300%。

The US has increasingly passed a proliferation of “Buy American” legislation which, along with intense domestic political pressure, is intended to bully American corporations and low-level governments to avoid foreign goods. This, in spite of intense American pressure on countries like China to “play fair” and develop “an open market” for American firms in corresponding markets in China. In one celebrated case, California ripped out of the ground a newly-laid Canadian pipeline to replace it with “American steel”. It isn’t clear who were the beneficiaries of this one. Not long after this, US authorities ordered the dismantling of a newly built bridge in Colorado after discovering it contained steel beams from Canada. In another current case, Canada’s Prince Rupert Ferry Terminal which sits on federally-owned land, was sublet to the Americans on a 50-year management lease, and which will now undergo a massive construction upgrading – for which the Canadian government will pay – but which is fully subject to “buy American” rules. And that means that tens of millions of dollars’ worth of steel and other construction supplies will be provided by US firms, shutting Canada out completely from its own property.

美国越来越多地通过了一系列“购买美国货”的立法,加上强大的国内政治压力,旨在欺负美国公司和低级别政府,以规避外国商品。尽管美国对中国等国家施加了巨大压力,要求它们“公平竞争”,并在中国相应市场为美国公司开发“开放市场”。在一个著名的案例中,加利福尼亚州从地面上拆除了一条新铺设的加拿大管道,用“美国钢铁”代替。目前还不清楚谁是这次行动的受益者。此后不久,美国当局发现科罗拉多州新建的一座桥梁中有来自加拿大的钢梁,于是下令拆除该桥。在目前的另一个案例中,位于联邦所有土地上的加拿大鲁珀特王子渡轮码头以50年的管理租约转租给美国人,现在将进行大规模的建筑升级——加拿大政府将为此支付费用——但完全受“购买美国货”规则的约束。这意味着价值数千万美元的钢铁和其他建筑物资将由美国公司提供,加拿大将完全与自己的财产隔绝。

In early 2014 the US introduced new laws requiring 100% American content in all federally funded transit projects, virtually eliminating even firms like Canada’s Bombardier who supply most of the US’ trains and buses. Canadian firms are therefore shut out of billions of dollars of government-funded transportation projects in the US while their American rivals are free to capture similar work in Canada. Similarly, the US administration is haranguing China on fully opening all sectors of the Chinese economy to permit American firms to participate in all government projects while at the same time heavily restricting the participation of Chinese firms in American projects, usually on spurious grounds of ‘national security’. We can legitimately ask why competition is ‘good for China’ but not good for the Americans. In August of 2016, it was suddenly announced that the joint venture between China Railway and XpressWest, a private American company, had cancelled plans to build America’s first high-speed railway between Los Angeles and Las Vegas. Why? Listen to the company’s statements:

2014年初,美国出台了新法律,要求所有由联邦政府资助的交通项目中100%包含美国内容,甚至连加拿大庞巴迪(Bombardier)等提供美国大部分火车和公共汽车的公司都被取消了。因此,加拿大公司被美国政府资助的数十亿美元交通项目拒之门外,而他们的美国竞争对手则可以自由地在加拿大从事类似的工作。类似地,美国政府也在鼓吹中国全面开放中国经济的所有部门,允许美国企业参与所有政府项目,同时严重限制中国企业参与美国项目,通常是以虚假的“国家安全”为由。我们可以理直气壮地问,为什么竞争“对中国有利”,但对美国人不利。2016年8月,突然宣布中国铁路与美国私人公司XpressWest的合资企业取消了在洛杉矶和拉斯维加斯之间修建美国第一条高速铁路的计划。为什么?听公司的陈述:

“XpressWest indicated that its “biggest challenge” was a federal government requirement that high-speed trains must be manufactured in the United States to secure regulatory approvals. “As everyone knows, there are no high-speed trains manufactured in the United States. This inflexible requirement has been a fundamental barrier to financing high-speed rail in our country. For the past 10 years, we have patiently waited for policymakers to recognize high-speed rail in the United States is a new enterprise and that allowing trains from countries with decades of safe high-speed rail experience is needed to connect the Southwest region and start this new industry.” (64) (65) (66)

XpressWest表示,其“最大的挑战”是联邦政府要求高速列车必须在美国制造,以获得监管部门的批准。“众所周知,美国没有制造高速列车。这一不灵活的要求一直是我国高铁融资的根本障碍。在过去的10年中,我们耐心地等待决策者认识到美国的高铁是一项新的事业,需要允许拥有数十年安全高铁经验的国家的列车连接西南地区并启动这一新产业。” (64) (65) (66)

We are generally familiar with the stories of the Americans demanding the right to come into China and buy up every worthwhile company and brand while denying China an opportunity to purchase any companies in the US, usually on fictitious grounds of “national security”. In one case, a Chinese firm was refused permission to build a wind farm because it was near a military base. In another recent case, China’s Superior Aviation’s plans to buy US aircraft manufacturer Hawker Beechcraft collapsed from claims of more national security objections and the supposed difficulties of separating Hawker Beechcraft’s defense aerospace operations from other businesses.

我们通常都很熟悉这样的故事:美国人要求进入中国,收购每一家有价值的公司和品牌,而拒绝中国收购美国任何公司的机会,通常是基于虚构的“国家安全”理由在一个案例中,一家中国公司被拒绝建造风力发电厂,因为它靠近一个军事基地。在最近的另一个案例中,中国卓越航空公司收购美国飞机制造商Hawker Beechcraft的计划因更多的国家安全异议和将Hawker Beechcraft的国防航空业务与其他业务分离的假定困难而失败。

More recently, Chinese companies are finding it almost impossible to sell communications and other higher-tech products in the US because the government regularly cites “national security concerns” and prohibits the purchases or sales. In a classic case of predatory protectionism, the US government banned all products from Chinese electronics firm Huawei, on the grounds that the President of the company once served in the Chinese military, and the company would be a “national security risk”. The real reason was to protect the US firm Cisco Systems from Huawei’s better products and lower prices, against which Cisco could not compete. The Australian government concurrently announced a ban on Huawei participating in its proposed $36 billion high-speed Internet network, claiming a responsibility to “protect its integrity” from Chinese cyber-attacks. Australia reported considerable US political pressure to make this decision, as have many European nations. In 2012, US telecommunications companies received a remarkable marketing document intended to cause suspicion about Huawei. The report claimed, “Fear of Huawei spreads globally. (67) (68) (69)  Despite denials, Huawei has struggled to de-link itself from China’s People’s Liberation Army and the Chinese government”. It was later discovered that the paper’s author was Huawei’s main US rival, California-based Cisco Systems. But while Cisco was making these accusations about China, it was also revealed that Mike Quinn, a Cisco Vice-President, was a former CIA officer, and that many other senior Cisco employees had served in the US military. No double standard, here. As an indication of the blind supremacy mirror from which the US obtains its self-image, to say nothing of its unbelievable hypocrisy, the US government demands that Cisco be given open opportunity to sell similar electronics in China, and to the most sensitive industries such as defense, ridiculing China’s concerns about national security. American bullying hypocrisy is truly infuriating at times.

最近,中国公司发现在美国销售通讯和其他高科技产品几乎是不可能的,因为政府经常引用“国家安全顾虑”并禁止购买或销售。在一个典型的掠夺性保护主义案例中,美国政府禁止中国电子公司华为的所有产品,理由是该公司的总裁曾在中国军队服役,该公司将面临“国家安全风险”。真正的原因是保护美国思科系统公司免受华为更好的产品和更低的价格的影响,而这正是思科无法与之竞争的。澳大利亚政府同时宣布禁止华为参与其拟议的360亿美元高速互联网网络,声称有责任“保护其完整性”免受中国网络攻击。澳大利亚报告说,美国施加了相当大的政治压力,要求做出这一决定,许多欧洲国家也是如此。2012年,美国电信公司收到了一份引人注目的营销文件,意在引起对华为的怀疑。(67) (68) (69) 该报告称,“对华为的恐惧在全球蔓延。尽管遭到否认,华为仍在努力与中国人民解放军和中国政府脱钩”。后来发现,该论文的作者是华为在美国的主要竞争对手,位于加利福尼亚州的思科系统公司。但在思科对中国进行这些指控的同时,还披露了思科副总裁迈克·奎因(Mike Quinn)是前中情局官员,许多其他思科高级员工曾在美国军方服役。这里没有双重标准。美国政府要求思科有公开机会在中国和国防等最敏感的行业销售类似的电子产品,以此来嘲弄中国对国家安全的担忧,这表明美国获得自我形象的盲目霸权镜子,更不用说其令人难以置信的伪善了。美国欺凌他人的伪善有时确实令人愤怒。

And then we have AmCham, the American Chamber of Commerce in China, the guardian angel of hypocrisy for Americans everywhere, complaining in the Washington Post that China was “aggressively moving ahead” with rules that would cut out foreign businesses, beginning what AmCham characterized as an “intense campaign” to force public institutions and businesses to install Chinese-developed software and hardware to protect domestic computer systems from NSA spying. But according to AmCham, while China cast the move as a national security issue, the requirements went “well beyond the norms set by other countries”. The report told us that China’s new rules “maintain an overly broad definition of national security, which is contrary to standard international practice”. China went beyond the norms set by other countries? The US, claiming “national security” virtually evicted Huawei from the country and Haier couldn’t even buy a dishwasher manufacturer, but when China replaces some Cisco hardware in sensitive situations, this is “going beyond the norms with an overly broad definition of national security”.

还有美国商会,中国的美国商会,世界各地美国人伪善的守护天使,在《华盛顿邮报》上抱怨说,中国正在“积极推进”削减外国企业的规定,开始了美国商会所谓的“激烈运动”迫使公共机构和企业安装中国开发的软件和硬件,以保护国内计算机系统免受国家安全局的间谍活动。但据美国商会称,尽管中国将此举视为国家安全问题,但要求“远远超出了其他国家制定的规范”。报告告诉我们,中国的新规则“对国家安全的定义过于宽泛,这与标准国际惯例背道而驰”。中国超越了其他国家制定的标准?美国声称“国家安全”实际上将华为逐出了该国,海尔甚至无法购买洗碗机制造商,但当中国在敏感情况下更换一些思科硬件时,这“超出了规范,对国家安全的定义过于宽泛”。

Nobody in the US government appears to have the intelligence to ask why, If Cisco has executives who were with the CIA, that wouldn’t constitute a threat to China’s national security. And, it of course does constitute such a threat. The efforts to discredit Huawei illustrate a fear and resentment among US firms of highly successful Chinese competitors that are taking over the world’s telecommunications markets, which were once a distinctly American industry. One US expert wrote, “It was long thought that we were the number-one economy and China just supplied cheap labor. But now it is clear that China has a lot to offer in terms of innovation and industrial policy, and now Americans are scared”. And so they should be. If the telecom market were “free and open” and “a level playing field” as the Americans claim they want, Huawei and ZTE would already have taken over the entire US market and Cisco would be reduced to assembling OEM playstations for Sony. In this context, it should be noted that US Ambassador Gary Locke is not a friend of China. Reports claim that in November 2010, when Locke was the US Commerce Secretary, he put intense pressure on Sprint Nextel to reject any bids from Huawei, for purely political reasons.

美国政府中似乎没有人有情报问,如果思科有中情局的高管,为什么这不会对中国的国家安全构成威胁。当然,它确实构成了这样的威胁。诋毁华为的行为表明,美国公司对高度成功的中国竞争对手的恐惧和不满,这些竞争对手正在占领世界电信市场,而这些市场曾经是一个明显的美国行业。一位美国专家写道:“长期以来,人们一直认为我们是第一大经济体,而中国只是提供廉价劳动力。但现在很明显,中国在创新和产业政策方面有很多可以提供的,现在美国人感到害怕。”。他们应该如此。如果电信市场像美国人所宣称的那样“自由开放”和“公平竞争的环境”,华为和中兴将已经占领整个美国市场,思科将被缩减为为索尼组装OEM游戏机。在这方面,应该指出,美国大使骆家辉不是中国的朋友。有报道称,2010年11月,骆家辉担任美国商务部长时,纯粹出于政治原因,向Sprint Nextel施压,要求其拒绝华为的任何出价。

It is the same with the recent bitter US arguments about China’s exports of solar panels. During the past 5 years, due to huge investments in technology, China has become the world leader in producing solar panels at increasingly attractive prices. And in the process, the US had lost its lead, American firms were inefficient and overpriced, with outdated technology and the entire US solar industry virtually a walking corpse. So, a US trade panel approved an investigation into charges of “unfair Chinese trade practices” in the solar energy sector, concluding that US producers had been harmed or were threatened with mortal injury by the “unfairly low prices” of imports from China. It’s important to note that China’s trade doesn’t need to be unfair in any sense, for China to be punished by duties. It is enough that the Americans can’t compete, and so they ‘level the playing field’ by imposing punitive duties of up to 250% on billions of dollars of solar energy products from more than a hundred Chinese producers and exporters. The purpose is clear: The Americans cannot compete, and spitefully want to damage China’s worldwide supremacy in solar energy by (1) to remove them from the US market, and (2) attempting to reduce their revenues to help kill further research and development. This is just one of the ways the US tries to consolidate its leading position in any high-tech sector by warding off potential competition from China. This will of course hurt China, but will not help the Americans, and will greatly increase the installed costs of solar panels. This is protectionism at its worst, initiated by the world’s greatest proponent of “free trade” – which means, “trade is free, only if I am winning”. To make matters worse, the US bullied the EU and other Western nations to do the same. The entire solar industry risks a breakdown from this protectionist foolishness, but Obama insisted the US “would not cede solar, wind or battery industries to China”.

最近美国对中国太阳能电池板出口的激烈争论也是如此。在过去5年中,由于在技术上的巨大投资,中国已经成为以越来越有吸引力的价格生产太阳能电池板的世界领先者。在这个过程中,美国失去了领先地位,美国公司效率低下,价格过高,技术过时,整个美国太阳能产业几乎成了行尸走肉。因此,一个美国贸易小组批准了对太阳能行业“中国不公平贸易行为”指控的调查,结论是美国生产商受到了来自中国进口产品“不公平低价”的伤害或致命伤害的威胁。值得注意的是,中国的贸易在任何意义上都不需要是不公平的,因为中国会受到关税的惩罚。美国没有竞争力就足够了,因此他们通过对来自100多家中国生产商和出口商的数十亿美元太阳能产品征收高达250%的惩罚性关税来“公平竞争”。其目的是明确的:美国人无法竞争,他们恶意想破坏中国在太阳能领域的世界霸权,(1)将他们从美国市场上赶走,(2)试图减少收入以帮助扼杀进一步的研发。这只是美国试图通过抵御来自中国的潜在竞争来巩固其在任何高科技领域的领先地位的方式之一。这当然会伤害中国,但无助于美国,并将大大增加太阳能电池板的安装成本。这是最糟糕的保护主义,是由世界上最伟大的“自由贸易”支持者发起的,也就是说,“只有我赢了,贸易才是自由的”。更糟糕的是,美国威逼欧盟和其他西方国家也这么做。整个太阳能产业都有可能因这种保护主义的愚蠢行为而崩溃,但奥巴马坚称美国“不会将太阳能、风能或电池产业割让给中国”。

As China continues its economic development with the consequent upgrading of its industrial capability, it exports increasingly higher tech and higher value-added products to global markets, this of course affecting the market share of these high-end products from Western nations. In spite of all the blather and whining from American firms about China dumping goods or violating someone’s IP, or engaging in undefined “cheating” on trade, the bald truth is that US firms are simply resorting to illegal and unfair methods of protecting their market share, especially since high-tech products generate much more profit than do low-end items like garments or footwear that China manufactured initially. It is almost invariably true that the accusations of unfair trade against China and similar nations, are slanderous allegations intended for public consumption at home to turn the tide of public opinion and garner support for yet more protectionist measures that assist a few US firms while costing American consumers billions of dollars in higher prices. This is truly corporate welfare on a grand scale where the only winners are a few industrialists.

随着中国经济的持续发展和工业能力的不断提升,中国向全球市场出口了越来越多的高科技和高附加值产品,这当然影响了西方国家高端产品的市场份额。尽管美国公司对中国倾销商品或侵犯某人的知识产权,或在贸易中进行未定义的“欺诈”进行了无谓的抱怨和抱怨,但赤裸裸的事实是,美国公司只是在采取非法和不公平的方法来保护其市场份额,特别是因为高科技产品产生的利润远远高于中国最初制造的服装或鞋类等低端产品。对中国和类似国家的不公平贸易指控几乎总是正确的,是针对国内公众消费的诽谤性指控,旨在扭转公众舆论的潮流,并为更多保护主义措施赢得支持,这些措施帮助了一些美国公司,同时让美国消费者付出数十亿美元的高价。这是真正的大规模企业福利,唯一的赢家是少数几个实业家。

The US has always attempted to extend its extraterritorial influence and political domination by using the excuse of ‘national security’ to insert itself into the affairs of other nations which are of no apparent concern. One increasingly troublesome area is that of international mergers and acquisitions involving two foreign companies, one of which may have minor operations in the US. The Americans created a body named the Committee on Foreign Investment in the US (CFIUS), to examine foreign takeovers of US assets, but have increasingly used this body to interfere in Asian takeovers (especially Chinese) of European or other companies that have US assets. In one case, the Dutch company Philips had agreed to sell its lighting components business to a Chinese firm, but the Americans exerted enormous political pressure to block the sale because Philips had some R&D operations and a large portfolio of patents in a US company, which the Americans did not want China to obtain. Philips could probably have pulled those operations out of the US and then proceeded with the sale, but the Americans threatened retaliation in many other ways, including shutting Philips products out of the US market. Both the Europeans and the Chinese are expressing strong resentment against this blatantly political interference that has as its only purpose an American determination to control access to technology by other countries. In other words, the Americans have assumed the authority to tell a Dutch company it cannot sell technology to a Chinese company, under threat of losing access to the American market. On the other hand, the Americans demand the right to enter China and buy anything, the operative philosophy suddenly changing to ‘open markets’ and ‘free trade’, Chinese concerns about national security being dismissed as ‘Communist propaganda’.

美国一直试图扩大其域外影响力和政治统治,以“国家安全”为借口,介入其他国家的事务,而这些事务显然不受关注。一个日益麻烦的领域是涉及两家外国公司的国际并购,其中一家可能在美国有小规模业务。美国人创建了一个名为美国外国投资委员会(CFIUS)的机构,以审查外国对美国资产的收购,但越来越多地利用该机构干预亚洲对拥有美国资产的欧洲或其他公司的收购(尤其是中国公司)。在一个案例中,荷兰公司飞利浦同意将其照明组件业务出售给一家中国公司,但美国人施加了巨大的政治压力阻止出售,因为飞利浦在一家美国公司拥有一些研发业务和大量专利,而美国人不希望中国获得这些。飞利浦可能已经将这些业务撤出美国,然后继续出售,但美国方面威胁要以其他许多方式进行报复,包括将飞利浦产品从美国市场上关闭。欧洲人和中国人都对这种公然的政治干涉表示强烈不满,这种干涉的唯一目的是美国决心控制其他国家获得技术。换言之,在失去进入美国市场的机会的威胁下,美国人已经有权告诉一家荷兰公司它不能向一家中国公司出售技术。另一方面,美国人要求进入中国并购买任何东西的权利,经营理念突然转变为“开放市场”和“自由贸易”,中国人对国家安全的担忧被视为“共产主义宣传”而不屑一顾。

In late 2015 the US levied an import duty of almost 250% on Chinese steel, on the pathetic grounds that steel imports from China “appeared to be excessive”. The simple fact was that China could produce high-quality steel at prices much lower than could American firms like US Steel who were mostly bleeding red ink. US Steel said the tariffs were “a good first step” toward halting “these harmful, illegal and unfair practices.” But of course, there were no illegal or unfair practices. The Americans are masters at couching trade pricing in evangelical terms and rushing the high moral ground, but the real issue is the matter of free trade, under which I should be able to sell my products at whatever price I choose. If I have misread the market and overproduced a product, I may well have to sell it off at cost, or even at a loss, to eliminate my inventory and recover whatever cash I can. This practice is a single event that is neither predatory nor immoral, with these discounts being both temporary and usually minor, reductions of perhaps 10% or 20%, and represent a real benefit to customers like the US auto industry who are also hurting.

2015年末,美国对中国钢铁征收了近250%的进口税,其可悲的理由是,从中国进口的钢铁“似乎过多”。一个简单的事实是,中国能够以远低于像美国钢铁公司这样的美国公司的价格生产出高质量的钢铁,而美国钢铁公司大部分都在亏损。美国钢铁公司表示,这些关税是制止“这些有害、非法和不公平行为”的“良好的第一步”。但当然,不存在非法或不公平行为。美国人擅长用福音主义的术语来表达贸易定价,并在道德高地上一马当先,但真正的问题是自由贸易,在自由贸易下,我应该能够以我选择的任何价格出售我的产品。如果我误读了市场,过度生产了一种产品,我很可能不得不以成本甚至亏损的方式将其出售,以消除库存,收回我能收回的任何现金。这种做法是一个既不是掠夺性的也不是不道德的单一事件,这些折扣都是暂时性的,通常是轻微的,降幅可能是10%或20%,对像美国汽车业这样同样受到伤害的客户来说是一种真正的好处。

And China’s cost advantage in steelmaking is also of that same degree, perhaps only 5% or 10%, but the US government does not in any sense try to ‘level the playing field’ as it claims, but clearly takes actions designed to cripple and even collapse a competitor’s industries. How else can we interpret US tariffs on Chinese steel at 250%? These moves are intended only to totally eliminate foreign products from the US market whenever American companies cannot compete – which is most of the time. Speaking to The Wall Street Journal, Li Xinchuang, deputy secretary-general of the China Iron and Steel Association, said China alone wasn’t responsible for an excess of global steel supply, and that higher tariffs imposed on its exports were unfair. “Overcapacity in the steel industry is global. It is not only a situation in China. We have both good quality and price. It is not about price alone. I don’t see why we can’t export when we can offer good quality to customers.” The Americans follow this pattern in every conceivable area in attempts to limit or eliminate competition for American firms. But these are all temporary measures that will require endless repetition because US firms in most industries are not competitive.

中国在钢铁生产方面的成本优势也达到了同样的程度,也许只有5%或10%,但美国政府在任何意义上都不会像其声称的那样试图“公平竞争”,而是显然采取了旨在削弱甚至瓦解竞争对手产业的行动。我们还能如何解释美国对中国钢铁的250%关税?这些举措的目的只是在美国公司无法竞争的情况下,将外国产品从美国市场完全淘汰——这在大多数情况下都是如此。中国钢铁协会副秘书长李新创在接受《华尔街日报》采访时表示,全球钢铁供应过剩并非中国一方的责任,对其出口产品征收更高的关税是不公平的。“钢铁行业的产能过剩是全球性的。这不仅仅是中国的情况。我们有好的质量和价格。这不仅仅是价格问题。我不明白为什么我们不能向客户提供高质量的产品。”美国人在每个可能的领域都遵循这种模式,试图限制或消除美国公司的竞争。但这些都是临时措施,需要无休止地重复,因为大多数行业的美国公司都没有竞争力。

The US is fond of slandering China by boasting of all the complaints it has filed with the WTO against China for unfair trade. As always, the US media report only the accusation, not the verdict. In one typical instance, the WTO rejected all 13 claims made by the US and ruled American anti-dumping measures unlawful and in violation of WTO rules. In most cases the US simply abuses the process by employing questionable methodologies in its determinations. These persistent US practices are merely a form of harassment and aggressive protectionism, and unrelated to free trade. The Americans challenge billions of dollars of Chinese imports every year, almost all of which fail.

美国喜欢诽谤中国,吹嘘它向世贸组织提出的所有针对中国不公平贸易的投诉。一如既往,美国媒体只报道指控,不报道判决。在一个典型案例中,世贸组织驳回了美国提出的所有13项索赔,并裁定美国的反倾销措施非法,违反了世贸组织规则。在大多数情况下,美国只是滥用这一过程,在其决定中采用了有问题的方法。美国这些顽固的做法只是一种骚扰和激进的保护主义,与自由贸易无关。美国人每年挑战数十亿美元的中国进口,几乎所有的进口都失败了。

Similarly, the US repeatedly files trivial nonsense complaints with various trade bodies, in one case accusing the Chinese government of unfairly subsidising its cotton growers. In this case, the subsidy was lower than that permitted by the WTO and applied only to very small-scale subsistence farmers in remote, underdeveloped regions to protect their livelihood, the volume involved being insignificant in relation to China’s total production and consumption. Many of the claims made by US trade representatives were either recklessly incorrect or deliberately dishonest. Still with cotton, the Americans accused China of heavily subsidising domestic production to build reserves then export them at unfairly low prices, an absurd accusation since China’s cotton imports increased from 100,000 tons to more than 4 million tons in one decade, today buying more than half of the world’s production, and exporting nothing. And then we have the other side of the fence, where China presented cases to the WTO documenting the heavy US subsidies on autos and auto parts that were seriously distorting domestic industry in China, one of many such cases. In an unrelated instance at about the same time, the European Union requested WTO approval for sanctions of more than $12 billion against the US not only for providing Boeing with illegal subsidies but with American failure to comply with past rulings on illegal subsidies given to Boeing Aircraft. While the US consistently engages in these illegal protectionist activities against other nations, the American media publish only information critical of the trade practices of other countries. There are two important points here. One is that US citizens are never informed of the illegal trade actions of their own government because the information is very effectively self-censored by the media. The other is that the US government has for decades been repeatedly sanctioned for trade violations, with orders to cease and desist, and to refund extortionate duties and other funds collected. In virtually every case, the Americans, abiding by their world-famous rule of law, simply ignore the international trade authorities and continue their practices.

类似地,美国一再向各贸易机构提出琐碎的无稽之谈,其中一个指控中国政府不公平地补贴其棉花种植者。在这种情况下,补贴低于世贸组织允许的水平,仅适用于偏远欠发达地区的极少数自给农民,以保护他们的生计,所涉及的数量与中国的总生产和消费量相比微不足道。美国贸易代表提出的许多主张要么鲁莽地不正确,要么故意不诚实。在棉花方面,美国指责中国大幅补贴国内生产以建立储备,然后以不公平的低价出口,这是一个荒谬的指控,因为中国的棉花进口在十年内从10万吨增加到400多万吨,如今购买了世界产量的一半以上,却什么也没有出口。另一方面,中国向世贸组织提交案例,证明美国对汽车和汽车零部件的巨额补贴严重扭曲了中国国内产业,这是众多此类案例之一。大约在同一时间,欧盟要求世贸组织批准对美国实施120多亿美元的制裁,这不仅是因为美国向波音公司提供非法补贴,而且是因为美国未能遵守过去关于向波音飞机提供非法补贴的裁决。尽管美国一直在从事针对其他国家的非法保护主义活动,但美国媒体只发布批评其他国家贸易做法的信息。这里有两个要点。一是美国公民从未被告知本国政府的非法贸易行为,因为这些信息被媒体有效地自我审查。另一个原因是,几十年来,美国政府一再因违反贸易法而受到制裁,下令停止和停止贸易,并退还勒索的关税和其他收取的资金。事实上,在任何情况下,美国人都遵守其举世闻名的法治,无视国际贸易当局,继续他们的做法。

The world would be a better place if the Americans possessed half the excellence at producing and marketing products as they display for producing and marketing unsubstantiated claims of their moral superiority. US steel and aluminum industries have archaic, high-cost facilities and have been generally uncompetitive for a long time. China’s production facilities on the other hand are new and efficient and the country’s steel firms can produce at a cost lower than most. When the Americans were flooding the world with cheaper (often subsidised) steel and aluminum, that was justified on the basis of efficiency, competitiveness, and general American superiority, to say nothing of ‘letting the market decide’. But when China or any other nation can produce and sell equivalent quality at lower cost, the free market sentiment quickly disappears in clouds of accusations of cheating, dumping, subsidising, and whatever other adjectives happen to be convenient. The Americans seem to begin with a premise that the entire world market is theirs. If Boeing loses out on sales to Airbus, the Europeans must have cheated, or bribed airline officials. If China sells steel or aluminum at a lower price than American firms are able to do, we have an instant accusation Chinese firms are selling below cost. As I mentioned above, there are occasions where producers in every country will attempt to unload excess inventory, even at a loss, to recover their capital, but those occasions are a one-time gift to consumers who would be perfectly happy to purchase all their raw materials below the actual cost of production.

如果美国人在生产和销售产品方面拥有一半的卓越能力,就像他们在生产和销售未经证实的道德优越性时所表现出来的那样,那么世界将会变得更美好。美国钢铁和铝业设施陈旧、成本高,长期以来普遍缺乏竞争力。另一方面,中国的生产设施是新的、高效的,中国的钢铁企业可以以比大多数企业更低的成本生产。当美国人向全世界大量供应廉价(通常是补贴)的钢铁和铝时,这是基于效率、竞争力和美国的总体优势,更不用说“由市场决定”了。但当中国或任何其他国家能够以较低的成本生产和销售同等质量的产品时,自由市场情绪很快就会消失在欺诈、倾销、补贴和其他任何合适的形容词的云雾中。美国人似乎从一个前提开始,即整个世界市场都是他们的。如果波音在向空客的销售中失败,那么欧洲人一定是在欺骗或贿赂航空公司官员。如果中国以比美国公司更低的价格出售钢铁或铝,我们马上就会指控中国公司以低于成本的价格出售。正如我上面提到的,每个国家的生产商有时会试图卸下多余的库存,即使是在亏损的情况下,以收回其资本,但这些情况是给消费者的一次性礼物,消费者会非常乐意购买低于实际生产成本的所有原材料。

Still with steel, the Americans accused Chinese firms of “over-producing” and flooding the world’s markets with low-cost steel. Aside from the fact that the Americans repeatedly do this themselves, this should be one definition of a “free market”: I produce as much as I can and try to sell my production wherever I can. Volume means profits. However, it seems that any nation showing signs of becoming too successful must be quickly beaten down, which leads us back to our persistent WTO complaints. In any case, the Western iron ore companies, as one example, are famous for vastly over-producing during times of low prices, specifically to drive all marginal producers out of business, after which they control the market and can raise prices to unconscionable levels. Still with steel and aluminum, in 2016 the Americans were bullying half of the world in an attempt to create a semblance of uniform opinion that China reduce its production of these metals, going so far as to pay 5,000 people in Europe to participate in a staged protest against Chinese steel. (70) (71) The problem was simply one of American lack of competitiveness in metals production with a consequent increasing loss of markets and volume. The argument was that the world had no need for such high volume and that China should shut down half of its production facilities to save the world, but that is always the American way; I’m sick, but I want you to take the medicine. It didn’t seem to occur to many people that it was the American mills and smelters that were lacking sales, and maybe the US should shut down its inefficient, high-cost facilities ‘to save the world’. And once again, when US firms were flooding the world with cheap metal and forcing other nations to curtail production, there was no mention then of saving the world. These are yet more instances of the hypocrisy that seems to permeate everything American; it’s okay if I do it, but bad if you do it.

在钢铁方面,美国人指责中国企业“过度生产”,并用低成本钢铁充斥世界市场。除了美国人自己反复这样做之外,这应该是“自由市场”的一个定义:我尽可能多地生产,并尽可能地销售我的产品。数量意味着利润。然而,似乎任何表现出过于成功迹象的国家都必须迅速被击败,这让我们回到了对世贸组织的抱怨。无论如何,西方铁矿石公司就是一个例子,它们以在低价时期大量过度生产而闻名,特别是为了迫使所有边际生产商停产,然后控制市场并将价格提高到不合理的水平。在钢铁和铝方面,2016年,美国人欺负了半个世界,试图制造一种一致意见的假象,认为中国减少了这些金属的生产,甚至在欧洲支付5000人参加针对中国钢铁的分阶段抗议。(70) (71) 问题仅仅是美国在金属生产方面缺乏竞争力,从而导致市场和数量的不断流失。他们的观点是,世界不需要如此高的产量,中国应该关闭一半的生产设施来拯救世界,但这始终是美国的方式;我病了,但我要你吃药。许多人似乎没有想到,是美国的钢铁厂和冶炼厂缺乏销售,也许美国应该关闭其效率低下、成本高昂的工厂,以“拯救世界”。再一次,当美国公司用廉价金属充斥世界并迫使其他国家削减生产时,却没有提到拯救世界。这些都是伪善的更多例子,似乎渗透到美国的每一件事中;我做没关系,但你做了就糟了。

It was the same with China being admitted to the WTO; the Americans for decades did everything in their power to prevent China’s admission, then, when they could no longer prevent it, took credit for it. We see this again in 2016 with China up for designation in Europe as a market economy, a move which make trade easier and more free between China and Europe. Once again, the Americans are there, bullying all European governments to vote against China’s admission. Their success, if they are successful, will not benefit the US but will hurt China – which is the plan. The European countries estimated they might collectively lose about 60,000 jobs by giving China market economy status, but on the other hand would gain many more from increased Chinese investment in Europe. But the Americans got one of their so-called NGOs, (American-controlled) Aegis Europe, to compliantly estimate that Europe would lose at least 3.5 million jobs! None of this is related to trade in any sense; it is simply American imperial bullying, while filling the US media with huge daily doses of hate literature to obtain public support from an ignorant public.

中国加入世贸组织也是如此,;几十年来,美国人尽其所能阻止中国加入欧盟,但当他们无法阻止中国加入欧盟时,他们却为中国加入欧盟争光。2016年,随着中国在欧洲被指定为市场经济国家,我们再次看到了这一点,这一举措使中欧之间的贸易更加容易和自由。美国人再一次站在那里,威胁所有欧洲政府投票反对中国加入欧盟。他们的成功,如果他们成功的话,将不会给美国带来好处,但会伤害中国——这就是他们的计划。欧洲国家估计,如果给予中国市场经济地位,它们可能总共失去约60000个工作岗位,但另一方面,中国在欧洲的投资增加将带来更多的就业机会。但美国人得到了一个所谓的非政府组织(美国控制的)欧洲宙斯盾,顺从地估计欧洲将失去至少350万个工作岗位!这些都与贸易无关;这只不过是美国帝国主义的欺凌,而美国媒体每天都充斥着大量仇恨文学,以获得无知公众的公众支持。

Beijing has treated American companies far too generously for far too long, giving them preferential tax treatment, allowing for generous valuation of “knowhow” as a capital contribution to JVs, and so much more. It is time to even the playing field. The Chinese government allows hundreds of foreign multinationals to handle their businesses quite well in China, and virtually all of them are very profitable. It is time for the West to reciprocate for China. Open Market rules should apply equally to all. Chinese companies still face severe trade and investment barriers, Chinese exporters facing sharp increases in punitive duties and tariffs against Chinese goods and services launched by Western nations, almost invariably at the encouragement or demand of the US. China, as the world’s second largest importer, has suffered the most trade challenges of all countries for 17 consecutive years, with most of the trade friction between China and the US being political rather than commercial, the Americans most commonly claiming “National Security” as an issue. These measures primarily accomplish the US purpose of hindering Chinese firms from expanding overseas. Mostly, these are thinly-disguised protectionist measures, but many are serious. The US is especially concerned about China’s progress in any areas involving high technology, mostly because the US has militarised and weaponised this grade of knowledge, and wants to prevent China from making any military progress. It was for this reason that the US Congress recently approved a bill that prohibited both the Office of Science and Technology and NASA from coordinating any joint scientific activity with China. If that weren’t enough, the US excluded China from a list of 164 countries to whom it granted its new license exception called a ‘Strategic Trade Authorization’.

长期以来,北京对美国企业过于慷慨,给予它们税收优惠,允许对“专有技术”进行慷慨估值,作为对合资企业的出资,等等。是时候平衡一下竞争环境了。中国政府允许数百家外国跨国公司在中国经营得相当好,而且几乎所有的跨国公司都非常有利可图。现在是西方回报中国的时候了。公开市场规则应该平等地适用于所有人。中国企业仍然面临着严重的贸易和投资壁垒,中国出口商面临着西方国家对中国商品和服务征收的惩罚性关税和关税的大幅增加,几乎都是在美国的鼓励或要求下实施的。作为世界第二大进口国,中国连续17年遭受所有国家中最严重的贸易挑战,中美之间的大部分贸易摩擦都是政治性的,而不是商业性的,美国人最常将“国家安全”视为一个问题。这些措施主要是为了达到美国阻止中国企业海外扩张的目的。大多数情况下,这些都是伪装得很薄的保护主义措施,但很多都是严肃的。美国特别关注中国在高科技领域的进展,主要是因为美国已经将这一级别的知识军事化和武器化,并希望阻止中国取得任何军事进展。正是出于这个原因,美国国会最近批准了一项法案,禁止科学技术办公室和美国宇航局与中国协调任何联合科学活动。如果这还不够的话,美国将中国从164个国家的名单中排除在外,这些国家被美国授予了被称为“战略贸易授权”的新许可例外。

It was for this reason that exports to China of even simple PC micro-processors were banned for many years. The products or materials needn’t be for military use in China, the Americans simply wanting to keep China in the high-tech dark by any means possible. US restrictions on high-tech exports to China are “strict and extensive”, and have exacerbated trade imbalances between China and the US. They also damage China’s trade relations with other nations because the US State Department exerts substantial diplomatic and even military pressure (or threats) on the Europeans and other nations to follow the US lead. Many American firms have complained bitterly over lost business opportunities and market share in China as a result of the US government imposing control on more than 2,000 so-called “high-tech items” for export to China.

正是出于这个原因,多年来,即使是简单的PC微处理器也被禁止向中国出口。这些产品或材料不必在中国用于军事用途,美国人只是想用任何可能的方法将中国置于高科技的黑暗中。美国对中国高科技出口的限制“严格而广泛”,加剧了中美之间的贸易失衡。它们还损害了中国与其他国家的贸易关系,因为美国国务院对欧洲和其他国家施加了巨大的外交甚至军事压力(或威胁),要求它们效仿美国。由于美国政府对向中国出口的2000多种所谓“高科技产品”实施管制,许多美国公司对中国失去的商机和市场份额表示强烈不满。

As well, a host of Chinese companies, including Huawei, ZTE, Haier and CNOOC have suffered setbacks to their overseas acquisition and merger plans because of US trade restrictions based on so-called US “national security” claims. Chinese companies are finding it almost impossible to purchase assets in the US, or to sell communications and other higher-tech products in the US because the government regularly cites “national security concerns” and prohibits the purchases or sales. As if purchases and sales weren’t enough to satisfy this cold war mentality, the US Congress is now considering stricter rules on investment from China’s State-owned companies, claiming these will pose both economic and security risks to the US. And of course, the US blocked investments by Huawei and ZTE, on totally unsupported and undocumented vague accusations of espionage.

此外,包括华为、中兴通讯、海尔和中海油在内的许多中国公司的海外收购和合并计划也因美国基于所谓美国“国家安全”主张的贸易限制而受挫。中国公司发现几乎不可能在美国购买资产,也不可能在美国销售通信和其他高科技产品,因为政府经常引用“国家安全顾虑”并禁止购买或销售。似乎购买和销售不足以满足这种冷战思维,美国国会现在正在考虑对中国国有企业的投资实施更严格的规定,声称这些将给美国带来经济和安全风险。当然,美国也阻止了华为和中兴通讯的投资,因为他们完全没有证据证明,也没有文件证明他们的间谍指控。

Huawei Recently lost a chance to buy a US broadband software company (2Wire), because the US government simply didn’t want Chinese firms buying any anything American. The US government claimed Huawei was a “security risk” and killed the sale – even though the firm offered more money than other competitors. There have been many cases like this. CNOOC wanted to buy Unocal Petroleum in the US, but once again China’s ownership – of some oil wells, mostly in Asia – would be a “security risk”. This was a thinly-disguised decision to try to limit China’s access to sufficient supplies of petroleum. China’s Tangshan Caofeidian Investment Corporation was forced to abandon a joint venture with a US manufacturer of fiber optics, because it would “threaten US National Security”. The US home appliance firm Maytag was for sale and attracted a bid from Haier, but was quickly killed by the US on the basis of security, and a US firm outbid Haier by 20% to ensure the firm “wouldn’t go to China”. Yet US companies – with the fierce political support of their government – demand the “right” to come to China and buy everything, but China is not permitted to worry about its own ‘security risk’. Clearly, something needs to change.

华为最近失去了收购美国宽带软件公司(2Wire)的机会,因为美国政府根本不希望中国公司购买任何美国产品。美国政府声称华为是一个“安全风险”,并扼杀了此次出售——尽管该公司提供的资金比其他竞争对手多。像这样的案例很多。中海油想在美国收购优尼科石油公司,但中国对一些油井的所有权——主要是在亚洲——将再次构成“安全风险”。这是一个试图限制中国获得足够石油供应的掩饰性决定。中国唐山曹妃甸投资公司被迫放弃与美国一家光纤制造商的合资企业,因为这将“威胁美国国家安全”。美国家电公司Maytag正准备出售,并吸引了海尔的出价,但由于安全原因很快被美国扼杀,一家美国公司出价超过海尔20%,以确保该公司“不会去中国”。然而,美国公司——在其政府的强烈政治支持下——要求“权利”来中国购买一切,但中国不允许担心自己的“安全风险”。显然,有些事情需要改变。

It is almost comical, the way in which the US government and media raise irrelevancies and juvenile accusations about China “not playing by the rules”. What rules? China is learning quickly about these masters of economic hypocrisy, which is the real cause behind the ever-growing whining in the Western media. When others begin to win, in the same arena and under the rules that they used to take advantage of you for 300 years, suddenly the rules become “unfair”. Of all the nations in the world, the US is the most insanely mercantilist and viciously predatory, using every manner of political, economic and even military, pressure, to force the rules of every agreement to a form that works to its specific advantage. But whenever any other nation – and there are many examples – begins to beat the US at their own game, playing by those same US rules, it is always the Americans who instantly begin whining about others being “unfair”, about their superior competitors “not playing by the rules”, and crying to anyone who will listen that all they want is “a level playing field.” And of course, the US media lap this up like a hungry dog and regurgitate it to the masses, so most Americans believe that China really does not follow the rules. But it is always the US that breaks any rule and ignores any law that proves inconvenient.

美国政府和媒体对中国“不按规则行事”提出无关紧要的指责和青少年指责,这几乎是滑稽可笑的。什么规则?中国正在迅速了解这些经济伪善大师,这才是西方媒体不断抱怨的真正原因。当其他人开始赢球时,在他们300年来利用你的同一竞技场和规则下,规则突然变得“不公平”。在世界上所有国家中,美国是最疯狂的重商主义者,也是最凶残的掠夺者,利用各种政治、经济甚至军事压力,迫使每一项协议的规则符合其特定利益。但是,每当任何其他国家——有很多例子——开始在他们自己的游戏中击败美国,按照同样的美国规则行事时,总是美国人立即开始抱怨其他国家“不公平”,抱怨他们的竞争对手“不按规则行事”,并向任何愿意倾听的人哭诉他们想要的是什么“一个公平的竞争环境。”当然,美国媒体会像一只饥饿的狗一样把它舔成一团,并将其反馈给大众,因此大多数美国人认为中国真的不遵守规则。但美国总是违反任何规则,无视任何不方便的法律。

Keep Your Wretched Refuse at Home

把你的垃圾留在家里

Immigration is a small but focused area of economic colonisation practiced by several Western nations but primarily the US. America has had for quite some time a predatory immigration policy meant to vacuum up and concentrate the best and brightest people – and the cash – from developing nations, programs presented in generous humanistic terms, but that really function as just another colonisation tool. Scientists and researchers playing musical chairs among the Western nations may create no net benefit or loss to any country, but laying out the red carpet to the brilliant and rich in the world’s developing countries is neither accidental nor benign, and incurs great losses to those nations because they are least able to afford this drain.

移民是几个西方国家(主要是美国)实施的一个小而集中的经济殖民地。美国有相当一段时间的掠夺性移民政策,旨在吸引和集中来自发展中国家的最优秀和最聪明的人——以及现金,这些项目以慷慨的人道主义术语呈现,但科学家和研究人员在西方国家中充当音乐椅,可能不会给任何国家带来任何净收益或损失,但为世界发展中国家的才华横溢和富有者铺上红地毯既不是偶然的,也不是良性的,而且会给这些国家带来巨大损失这是因为他们负担不起这样的费用。

It may well be true that many of these migrants would have had little opportunity to pursue their research or other work in their home countries, but this fact serves only as an illusion to mask the larger reality. This emigration removes forever the potential contributions to domestic development by these people, however small they might have been, and permanently transfers those contributions to the US, thereby magnifying – and serving to maintain – the income disparity between rich and poor nations. In fact, while it may be true that these emigrants would have accomplished little at home, it is equally true that without them the US would also have accomplished little, and the economic disparity would not have increased. It may be true that many emigrants to the US feel gratitude for the opportunity to further their careers, but this is from the point of view of American individualism which ignores the larger social losses.

很可能这些移民中的许多人几乎没有机会在母国从事研究或其他工作,但这一事实只是掩盖更大现实的一种幻觉。这种移民永远消除了这些人对国内发展的潜在贡献,不管他们的贡献有多小n、 事实上,尽管这些移民在国内的成就可能微乎其微,但同样正确的是,如果没有他们,美国的成就也将微乎其微,经济也将陷入困境贫富差距不会增加。许多移民到美国的人可能确实对有机会进一步发展自己的事业感到感激,但这是从美国个人主义的角度出发的,因为美国个人主义忽略了更大的社会损失。

The inscription on New York’s Statue of Liberty, “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore”, is just feel-good nonsense for Hallmark Greeting Cards. If it ever had truth in it, that was a long time ago. There is no ‘wretched refuse’ reaching American shores today, and there hasn’t been for a long time. It is only the rich and gifted who are welcomed today. Americans have been brainwashed into believing their country is the richest because they are the best and brightest, but that has never been true. For millennia, China led the world in inventions, discoveries and innovation, and more recently countries like Germany and Japan have consistently surpassed the US in almost every field except weapons of war and fraudulent banking.

纽约自由女神像上的题词“给我你疲惫的、贫穷的、拥挤的渴望自由呼吸的群众,你拥挤的海岸上可怜的垃圾”,对于Hallmark贺卡来说,这简直是无稽之谈。如果说它有真实性的话,那是很久以前的事了。如今,美国海岸上已经没有“可怜的垃圾”了,而且已经很久没有了。今天,只有富有和有天赋的人才受到欢迎。美国人被洗脑,认为他们的国家是最富有的,因为他们是最优秀和最聪明的,但这从来都不是真的。几千年来,中国在发明、发现和创新方面一直处于世界领先地位,最近,德国和日本等国家几乎在所有领域都超过了美国,除了战争武器和欺诈性银行业务。

There is another category of immigration that made a major contribution to the wealth and development of the US, and that was what some choose to call “the great scientific exodus during and after World War II. But this great exodus was not quite according to the myth created for the gullible American public. It is true that some Jewish scientists left Europe for the US during the war but the major effect occurred later. After the war, the US government transplanted at least 10,000 German scientists and a very large number of Japanese to the US, but in virtually every case these were war criminals fleeing certain prosecution and probably death for their crimes. Most of the Germans were too prominent to be placed in American society and were hidden in the US military where they would attract less public attention, only to be released as memories faded. The same was true with the Japanese. One of the most famous was Werner von Braun who created the American missile and space technology, but there were many more with their skills in military matters, in obscene human experiments, in torture and much more, all treasured immigrants for the US military machine. The sum of their “contributions” to American society and world unrest can only be guessed at.

还有另一类移民对美国的财富和发展做出了重大贡献,这就是一些人所说的第二次世界大战期间和之后的科学大逃亡。但是,这次大逃亡并不完全符合为易受骗的美国公众创造的神话。诚然,一些犹太科学家在战争期间离开欧洲前往美国,但主要影响发生在后来。战后,美国政府将至少10000名德国科学家和大量日本人转移到美国,但在几乎所有情况下,这些人都是战犯,因为他们的罪行而逃避某些起诉,甚至可能死亡。大多数德国人过于突出,无法融入美国社会,他们被隐藏在美国军队中,在那里,他们会吸引较少的公众关注,但随着记忆的消失,他们会被释放。日本人也是如此。其中最著名的是沃纳·冯·布劳恩(Werner von Braun),他创造了美国的导弹和太空技术,但他们在军事事务、猥亵的人体实验、酷刑等方面的技能还有很多,所有这些都是美国军事机器所珍视的移民。他们对美国社会和世界动荡的“贡献”之和只能猜测。

Control and Riches Through Cartels

通过卡特尔控制和控制财富

There are many areas in which the US exploited its commercial reach through protectionist and monopolist policies designed to fill American bank accounts while draining the world. One prominent example is the commodity cartels for which the US has always been famous, with large American companies controlling and manipulating markets like petroleum. In 1952, a US Senate Committee published a report on the petroleum cartel, showing that seven firms controlled 85% of the world’s petroleum reserves. They controlled all major oil refineries and pipelines, fixed worldwide oil prices and divided the world’s market among them. Five of these firms were American, the other two being their European cousins. All worked in the dark to eliminate competitors and maintain a stranglehold on the world’s oil supplies, distributing and sharing production areas, and fixing transport costs and sales prices, to dominate the world by controlling its oil. Even today, we can see fully-laden petroleum tankers anchored well offshore, sometimes for months, waiting for the most profitable delivery time.

在许多领域,美国通过保护主义和垄断政策利用其商业影响力,这些政策旨在填补美国银行账户,同时耗尽世界。一个突出的例子是美国一直以大宗商品卡特尔而闻名,美国大公司控制和操纵石油等市场。1952年,美国参议院一个委员会发表了一份关于石油卡特尔的报告,显示有七家公司控制了世界85%的石油储量。他们控制着所有主要的炼油厂和输油管道,确定了全球石油价格,并在它们之间瓜分了世界市场。这些公司中有五家是美国人,另外两家是他们的欧洲兄弟。所有人都在黑暗中工作,以消除竞争对手,保持对世界石油供应的垄断,分配和分享生产区域,固定运输成本和销售价格,通过控制石油来主宰世界。即使在今天,我们仍然可以看到满载的油轮停泊在海上,有时长达数月,等待利润最高的交付时间。

Epilogue

后记

These Volumes provide only a glimpse, a brief summary, of US government attitudes and activities that have for centuries been directed to creating and maintaining the national wealth that Americans generally credit to their “democracy” and American ingenuity, and serve only to open a window on some origins of this wealth. But even from this brief introduction it should be more than apparent that America is not wealthy because of either freedom or democracy, but instead from a powerful military, ‘law of the jungle’ predatory capitalism, a healthy infusion of white supremacy and some accidents of history. As with all prior empires, America is wealthy today because for hundreds of years it copied, stole from, bullied, spied on, intimidated, invaded, colonised and plundered, weaker nations.

这些书只提供了美国政府几个世纪以来一直致力于创造和维持国家财富的态度和活动的一瞥和简要概述,而美国人通常将这些财富归功于他们的“民主”和美国人的聪明才智,而这只是打开了一扇了解这些财富的某些来源的窗户。但即使从这篇简短的介绍中也可以明显看出,美国之所以富有,不是因为自由或民主,而是因为强大的军队、“丛林法则”掠夺性资本主义、白人至上的健康灌输以及历史上的一些偶然事件。与所有以前的帝国一样,美国今天是富有的,因为数百年来它抄袭、窃取、欺凌、监视、恐吓、入侵、殖民和掠夺弱国。

America is neither as innovative nor creative as the popular narrative suggests, and it should be more than obvious that claims to wanting “fair play” or “a level playing field” are merely jingoism for the masses and represent a rather high order of hypocrisy. When we peel back the layers and look behind the propaganda walls, we find little evidence that the US conducts itself internationally with any sense of honor or even justice. There is little in America’s foreign conduct that is either fair or moral, and certainly nothing decent. If I were an American, I would be dispirited and ashamed, finding nothing in the above to evoke pride in my nation. It is indeed a foolish and simple-minded pride, almost pathetic, that so many Americans derive a patriotic glow from their fringe membership in what is factually a vast and uncaring criminal enterprise that holds even them in contempt.

美国既没有流行叙事所暗示的那么创新,也没有那么富有创造性,而且应该更加明显的是,声称想要“公平竞争”或“公平竞争环境”仅仅是对大众的沙文主义,代表着相当高的虚伪性。当我们剥开层层宣传墙,看看背后,我们发现几乎没有证据表明美国在国际上表现得有任何荣誉感甚至正义感。美国的对外行为中几乎没有公平或道德的东西,当然也没有什么体面的东西。如果我是一个美国人,我会感到沮丧和羞耻,觉得上面没有任何东西能唤起我的国家的自豪感。如此多的美国人从他们的边缘成员中获得了爱国主义的光芒,这确实是一种愚蠢而单纯的骄傲,几乎是可悲的,事实上,这是一个巨大而不关心的犯罪集团,甚至连他们都受到蔑视。

The areas we have covered in this book relate primarily to the actions and attitudes of the US government itself. There is much more to this picture of American wealth relating to the actions of US multinational corporations that is too extensive to deal with here. In a later Volume, we will examine the attitudes, actions and effects of the American religion of predatory capitalism that seeks to purchase and kill major brands in every other nation, precisely to eliminate competition for American firms.

本书所涉及的领域主要与美国政府自身的行动和态度有关。关于美国财富的这幅图景,还有更多与美国跨国公司的行为有关的东西,这些行为过于广泛,无法在这里讨论。在后面的一卷中,我们将考察美国掠夺性资本主义宗教的态度、行为和影响。掠夺性资本主义寻求在其他国家购买和杀死主要品牌,恰恰是为了消除对美国公司的竞争。

I noted at the beginning of this volume that national and personal wealth do not necessarily coincide, that some portions of a nation can be extremely wealthy while the majority are impoverished. Many or even most of the events discussed above did not serve to enrich “America” as a nation but instead were a form of plunder that filled only a few pockets. The colonisations of poor nations were one such. Slavery is another.

我在本书开头指出,国家财富和个人财富不一定一致,一个国家的某些部分可能非常富有,而大多数则处于贫困状态。上面讨论的许多甚至大多数事件并没有使“美国”作为一个国家变得富有,而是一种只占少数口袋的掠夺形式。贫穷国家的殖民就是这样一个例子。奴隶制是另一个问题。

Lastly, it is necessary to note that a great many of the actions involving or facilitating the accumulation of wealth were not taken by the US government as such, but by those who control the US government from the shadows, the most obvious of these being the US Federal Reserve which is not American but is privately-owned by Rothschild, Warburg and a few other European Jewish bankers. Many of the actions or events listed in this chapter were due to the FED’s owners and mostly benefitted them alone. Most of the war seizures, Japan’s Golden Lily, the Silver and Gold purchase acts, the currency manipulations, the establishment of the IMF and World Bank all fit into this category. There are many more, as we shall see.

最后,需要指出的是,许多涉及或促进财富积累的行动并不是由美国政府本身采取的,而是由那些从阴影中控制美国政府的人采取的,其中最明显的是美联储,它不是美国的,而是由罗斯柴尔德私人拥有的,沃伯格和其他一些欧洲犹太银行家。本章所列的许多行动或事件都是由于美联储的所有者,而且大部分都是他们自己受益的。大多数战争扣押、日本的金百合花、白银和黄金购买法案、货币操纵、国际货币基金组织和世界银行的成立都属于这一类。还有很多,我们将看到。

*

 

罗曼诺夫的著作被翻译成32种语言,他的文章发表在30多个国家的150多个外语新闻和政治网站以及100多个英语平台上。拉里罗曼诺夫是一位退休的管理顾问和商人。他曾在国际咨询公司担任高级管理职务,并拥有国际进出口业务。他是上海复旦大学的客座教授,向国际EMBA课程提供国际事务案例研究。罗曼诺夫先生住在上海,目前正在写一系列与中国和西方有关的十本书。他是辛西娅·麦金尼新集《当中国打喷嚏》的撰稿人之一(第二章。2-对付恶魔)。

他的全部文章可以在以下看到https://www.moonofshanghai.com/ +http://www.bluemoonofshanghai.com/ 

他的联系方式是:2186604556@qq.com

*

笔记

NOTES

Reference links – How the US Became Rich – Part 6

Project Shamrock spying

(1) https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/echelon04.htm

(2) https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/echelon04.htm

(3) https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/echelon/echelon_2.htm

(4) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_surveillance_in_the_United_States

(5) https://gangstalkingmindcontrolcults.com/nsas-project-minaret-and-shamrock/

(6) https://www.dailydot.com/debug/nsa-prism-shamrock-history-spying-telegraphs/ 

(7) https://www.huffpost.com/entry/operation-shamrock-and-th_b_1406643

(8) https://www.startpage.com/privacy-please/startpage-articles/how-the-nsa-is-collecting-your-data-via-your-devices

(9) http://www.pensito.com/2006/05/13/operation-shamrock-nsas-first-domestic-spying-program-was-shut-down-by-congress-in-1975/

Project Echelon spying

(10) https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/echelon04.htm

(11) https://www.dtss.us/blog/the-echelon-project-and-spying/

(12) https://fossbytes.com/echelon-project-nsa-confirmed-secret-nsa-spying/

(13) https://techcrunch.com/2015/08/03/uncovering-echelon-the-top-secret-nsa-program-that-has-been-watching-you-your-entire-life/

(14) http://www.pireport.org/articles/2001/01/01/us-echelon-spying-system-provides-information-about-may-19-fiji

(15) https://mrhacker.co/hacked/existence-of-echelon-confirmed-top-secret-nsa-program-for-spying-on-you

(16) https://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2006/01/under_clinton_ny_times_called.html

(17) https://www.gaia.com/article/oldest-conspiracies-proven-true-project-echelon

(18) https://jacobsm.com/projfree/echelon_2.html

Xerox copiers came out of the factory “espionage-ready”

(19) http://electricalstrategies.com/about/in-the-news/spies-in-the-xerox-machine/

(20) https://cash4toners.com/info/2020/02/07/is-your-printer-spying-on-you/

(21) https://www.tapatalk.com/groups/theerant/how-xerox-helped-win-the-cold-war-t28623.html

Five Eyes spy network

(22) https://www.statecraftblog.co.uk/post/five-eyes-the-oldest-and-largest-spy-network-in-history#:~:text=The%20Five%20Eyes%20%28FVEY%29%2C%20consisting%20of%20Australia%2C%20Canada%2C,intelligence%20exchanges%20between%20the%20Allied%20nations%20during%20WWII .

(23) https://www.deepstateblog.org/2021/02/21/the-five-eyes-the-global-spy-network-you-never-heard-of/

(24) https://www.rt.com/news/521585-new-zealand-defends-five-eyes-intelligence-network/

(25) https://www.theglobeandmail.com/politics/article-canada-now-only-member-of-five-eyes-alliance-to-have-not-banned-huawei/ 

(26) https://www.scmp.com/news/world/article/1278285/snowden-tells-5-eyes-spy-network

CIA, NSA, spied on Enercon

(27) https://www.lewrockwell.com/2013/06/william-blum/what-the-spy-state-missed-about-edward-snowden/

(28) https://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2013/06/28/the-nsa-and-cias-dilemma/

(29) https://www.euractiv.com/section/global-europe/news/berlin-tells-cia-station-chief-to-leave-in-spy-scandal/

(30) https://williamblum.org/aer/read/118

Kenetech stole from enercon

(31) https://panchabuta.wordpress.com/2011/02/04/enercon-loses-patent-battle-in-chennai-court-finds-decison-alarming-warns-wind-industry-and-wtg-oems/

(32) https://www.windpowermonthly.com/article/960011/trans-atlantic-espionage-claimed-german-wind-company

(33) https://postmanpatel.blogspot.com/2008/05/enercon-v-echelon-how-comercial.html

Sinovel

(34) http://www.sinovel.com/english/about/?31.html

(35) https://money.cnn.com/2018/01/25/technology/china-us-sinovel-theft-conviction/index.html

NSA accused of hacking into UN internal video conferences 

(36) https://www.thedrum.com/news/2013/08/26/nsa-accused-hacking-un-internal-video-conferences-year

(37) http://www.attivissimo.net/security/echelon/echelon-europarliament-report.htm

Brazil Thomson-Alcatel NSA spying

(38) https://www.gpdr.org/industrial-spy

(39) https://yogaesoteric.net/echelon-the-start-of-britains-modern-day-spying-operations/

(40) https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-security-brazil-spying-idUSBRE98411420130905

(41) https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-security-latinamerica-idUSBRE96816H20130709

(42) https://www.reuters.com/article/brazil-usa-espionage-idUSL2N0PL27W20140710

(43) https://www.pressreader.com/usa/richmond-times-dispatch/20130903/281487864018375

(44) https://ottawacitizen.com/news/national/defence-watch/did-nsa-spying-on-brazil-allow-gripen-to-win-a-fight-aircraft-contract-and-cost-boeing-billions-of-dollars/

Patrick Buchanan “Behind a tariff wall”

(45) https://www.cato.org/commentary/truth-about-trade-history

US Section 337 investigations

(46) https://www.usitc.gov/intellectual_property/about_section_337.htm

(47) https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202101/1213959.shtml

China Won The 337 Investigation Lawsuit – Huaxiao

(48) https://www.huaxiao-ss.com/china-won-the-337-investigation-lawsuit.html

Matsushita 337 investigation

(49) Investigation No. 337-TA-392 usitc.gov›publications/337/pub3418.pdf 

https://www.mintz.com/sites/default/files/media/documents/2019-03-04/Certain%20Multimedia%20Display%20and%20Navigation%20Devices%20and%20Systems%2C%20Components%20Thereof%2C%20and%20Products%20Containing%20Same%2C%20337-TA-694%20Comm%27n%20Op..pdf

investigation, pursuant to subsection (b) of section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended … (Toshiba) and Matsushita Electric Corporation of America (Matsushita)

US “chicken war”

(50) https://www.businessinsider.com/american-trucks-chicken-tax-explains-domination-2018-6#:~:text=%20%20%201%20A%201960s%20%27Chicken%20War%27,Albert%20Edwards%2C%20a%20strategist%20at%20Soci%C3%A9t%C3%A9…%20More%20

(51) https://www.nytimes.com/1964/01/10/archives/the-chicken-war-a-battle-guide.html

(52) https://www.nytimes.com/1964/06/11/archives/poultry-dispute-hits-volkswagen-truck-sales-may-be-halved-by-us.html

(53) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicken_tax

(54) https://fee.org/articles/chicken-tax-makes-trucks-expensive-and-unavailable/

1985 “Plaza Accord” Japan

(55) https://kendawg.medium.com/how-the-plaza-accord-helped-the-us-destroy-the-japanese-economy-b4b24c20a9af

(56) https://www.imf.org/~/media/Websites/IMF/imported-flagship-issues/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/c1/_box14pdf.ashx

(57) https://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1095660.shtml

(58) https://www.scmp.com/economy/china-economy/article/2187773/china-urged-avoid-cautionary-tale-japan-and-plaza-accord

US duties on canada lumber

(59) https://www.canada.ca/en/global-affairs/news/2021/05/statement-by-minister-ng-on-us-preliminary-duty-rates-on-canadian-softwood-lumber.html#:~:text=%E2%80%9CU.S.%20duties%20on%20Canadian%20softwood%20lumber%20products%20are,and%20hinder%20economic%20recovery%20from%20the%20COVID-19%20pandemic .

(60) https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/softwood-lumber-dispute

(61) https://pennstatelaw.psu.edu/_file/aglaw/Lumber_Trade.pdf

(62) https://www.canada.ca/en/global-affairs/news/2017/11/statement_by_canadaonusdutiesoncanadiansoftwoodlumber.html

(63) https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-39708779

XpressWest hgh-speed train canceled

(64) https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-rail-xpresswest-idUSKCN0YV05R

(65) https://www.railway-technology.com/news/newsxpresswest-terminates-high-speed-rail-jv-with-china-railway-4921818

(66) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OE5PK6iCqns

Fear of Huawei spreads globally

(67) https://www.pressreader.com/usa/the-washington-post/20121011/281496453514238

(68) https://www.benton.org/headlines/huawei%E2%80%99s-us-competitors-among-those-pushing-scrutiny-chinese-tech-firm

(69) https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/jul/16/huawei-trade-global-supremacy-us-uk-china-liberal-capitalism

The us government paid 5,000 people in Europe to participate in a staged protest against Chinese steel.

(70) https://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-crowds-extortion-20181021-story.html

(71) https://www.reddit.com/r/europe/comments/nt319x/protest_against_chinese_university_today_in/

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